fraternity review

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F R AT E R N I T Y

REVIEW

contents THE CHARITIES Major Charitable Grants Annual Meeting of the Court 2011 The Corporate Year THE FRATERNITY New Elder Brother, New Younger Brethren, Honours and Awards Appointments and Promotions, Diary Dates Courtesy calls by visiting ships The Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant Thames Waterman Cutter Trinitytide, Burgees and Service Insignia Trinity House as a valuable venue Obituaries Remembrance, ANSS

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Around the Fraternity

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FEATURES The Year in Pictures Parliamentary Matters Lighthouse Engineering: Casquest modifications St Anthony Lighthouse painting The GLAs’ Maritime eLoran Space Weather Navaid Review: 2025 and Beyond Offshore Windfarms The IALA Year UKHO links Another great year for Trinity House Cadets & PYBS Deep Sea Pilotage Lighthouse Anniversaries, Alderney and Sark Trinity House 1514 to 2014, Part 3 The work of the Marine Accident Investigation Branch Ships & Cargoes Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society The First Sea Lord’s View RFA – The final phase Clothworkers’ Company Clipper Ventures The Swire group – 140 years in shipping Port of London Authority Gibraltar – Rock Solid From Beaufort House to Crown Princess Olympic preparations Marine Society & Sea Cadets The Royal Yacht Squadron Cutty Sark – the great survivor The Charity Annual Review 2010-2011

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THE CORPORATE BOARD

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At 31st March, 2012 Corporate Board Membership was:

The Corporation of Trinity House

The Corporate Board acts as the Trustee body of the two Trinity House Charities. The Corporate Charity was established by Royal Charter in 1514. A charter of Confirmation was granted in 1685 and this was followed by Supplemental Charters in 1870, 1894, 1910, 1939 and 1978. The Corporate Charity is responsible for the upkeep of Trinity House, the administration of the Fraternity and for the Corporation’s function as a deep sea pilotage authority. The Trinity House Maritime Charity is governed by a scheme of the Charity Commission of 1995; its principal objects are concerned with the welfare of mariners and their dependants, education and seamanship and the advancement of safe navigation. The Registered Charity number of the Corporate Charity is 211869; the Trinity House Maritime Charity is a subsidiary of the Corporate Charity with the number 211869/23.

Captain Ian McNaught (Deputy Master) Captain Duncan Glass OBE (Rental Warden) Captain Nigel Pryke (Nether Warden) Simon Sherrard Esq The Rt Hon The Viscount Cobham Commodore David Squire CBE RFA Commodore Jim Scorer RN Captain Roger Barker Captain Nigel Palmer OBE Commander Graham Hockley RN (Secretary)

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

FOREWORD BY THE DEPUTY MASTER

W

ithout doubt 2011 was a year of change

important role in our corporate

for Trinity House. Firstly there was the

governance in providing an assur-

appointment of HRH The Princess Royal

ance to the Lighthouse Board that

as our Master in May. Last summer she embarked in

the aids to navigation of Trinity

Galatea and we were able to show her something of

House satisfy the statutory under-

our work. I know that in the months ahead she will

takings of the Corporation as a

be eager to see much more of the Trinity House

General Lighthouse Authority. The

Service for she is eager to learn. Operationally we have satisfactorily achieved out

Lighthouse Board is able to ensure their

demands

for

effective

of hours monitoring for all three General Lighthouse

maintenance and financial, safety

Authorities. After much research and a great deal of

and environmental compliance are

negotiation with all parties it is my pleasure to

being met. Wherever the team

report that the system is now fully operational in

travelled there was clear evidence

Harwich and delivering good results.

of the excellent husbandry applied

Further, on the Engineering and Operations front, we

at our stations. This, once again,

are more than half way through a two year

reflects upon the professionalism

project to modernise Casquets lighthouse which will

of our dedicated maintenance

see this station become entirely powered by renewable

teams, ensuring we keep our aids

energy sources, enabling us to achieve further consid-

to navigation to that very high

erable cost savings. The technology to allow us to do

international standard required. We

this was developed by our R&RNav team, and will be

were afloat for some of the time and made good use

We continue to make grants for the benefit

extended to other offshore stations in due course.

of the new Trinity House helicopter Satellite, the

of seafarers and their welfare, both those

Following the launch of the tri-GLA strategy

crew of which have gained valuable experience in

afloat and those who are now ashore.

document 2025 & Beyond here in May, we continue

operating at our stations and in company with our

to work closely with our sister services, the Northern

service craft.

Then there is assistance provided for youth opportunities and training, public safety and

Lighthouse Board and the Commissioners of Irish

It is rewarding to see so many young people

Lights. Over the coming years we aim to reinforce a

choosing seafaring as a livelihood and it is a pleasure

education. In the financial year to March

highly desirable service to the world’s mariners. In

to report that our provision of funding for cadetships

2011 our charitable arm spent in the

this we have committed our three authorities to

under the Trinity House Merchant Navy Scholarship

region of £3.5 million in furtherance

continue to provide a service that is robust, efficient

Scheme continues to enable many young men and

of our charitable objectives.

and economic with the appropriate mix of physical

women to go to sea and embark on a worthwhile

and electronic aids to navigation. The document,

career in the Merchant Navy. Last September 30

which has been well received by the user, clearly

new Trinity House sponsored cadets joined maritime

outlines how we will fulfil their shared mission of

colleges. There is no doubt that our scheme

ahead and assure you that the Fraternity is in

“delivering a reliable, efficient and cost effective aids

continues to make an important contribution for

good hands as we prepare to celebrate the

to navigation service for the benefit and safety of all

the benefit of the nation.

500th anniversary of our founding in 2014.

To close I take this opportunity of wishing you all the very best for the year

mariners.” Looking back again to the summer we carried out the year’s Annual Inspection to assess the state of lighthouses, light vessels, buoys and depots with which we perform in our sea area. Members of the Lighthouse Board were escorted by the Engineering and Field Operations’ managers. Such audits play an

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MAJOR CHARITABLE GRANTS

Major Charitable Grants I

n the financial year to March 2012 the Trinity House Maritime Charity spent approximately £2.9 million in furtherance of its objectives. Of this in the region of £1.2 million was by way of grants to other maritime charities. The notes below demonstrate the broad range of charities and other beneficiaries in receipt of grants from the Corporation in the past year.

Tall Ships Youth Trust

Formerly The Sail Training Association, the Tall Ships Youth Trust is a registered charity founded in 1956 and dedicated to the personal development of young people through the crewing of ocean going sail training vessels. It is the UK’s oldest and largest sail training charity for young people aged 12 to 25. Over 95,000 trainees have sailed 1.8 million nautical miles in the Trust’s fleet: a 60 metre brig, Stavros S Niarchos, four 22 metre ocean-going Challenger Yachts, a 19 metre catamaran and before them there were a 60 metre brig Prince William and two 37 metre schooners Malcolm Miller and Sir Winston Churchill. On average, 70% of the young people sailing with the Trust are disadvantaged or disabled. In collaboration with Tall Ships Adventures, the Trust offers sail training voyages to anyone aged between 12 and 80. No sailing experience is needed as voyage crew are taught everything. It is widely agreed that, be they young or old, at school, adult or in need of some time off work, all of the voyages provide fun, adventure and the taking on of a challenge for many of the voyages are mentally and physically demanding providing an unforgettable experience.

Felixstowe Seafarers’ Centre

Here is offered a warm welcome to visiting seafarers arriving on the large number of vessels, large and small, from all over the world which use the East Coast Haven Ports of Felixstowe, Harwich and Ipswich on the busy North Sea shipping routes. At the Centre are offered a range of facilities for recreation and contacting home. Chaplains visit as many ships as possible and are available at any time at the Haven ports’ centres or on board ship to help and support seafarers. This comprehensive chaplaincy service together with many support services provide seafarers with all the facilities they need for contacting home, relaxing away from home and exploring the locality. The Chaplaincy service is not limited to Christians as it is an interfaith organisation where its Chaplains are available to help with spiritual questions. Here is an ecumenical mission and its concern is for the welfare of all seafarers, irrespective of faith or creed and, as its logo says, it aims to provide ‘a safe haven and a good anchorage.’ At the Felixstowe Centre there is a small staff supported by about 20 volunteers. As a charity the centre is a non-profit making organisation. 2

London Nautical School

Founded in 1915 as a consequence of the official report into the loss of Titanic the London Nautical School became, in 1990, one of the country’s first 11 to 18 comprehensive secondary schools for boys to be awarded grant maintained status. Situated in Stamford Street on the south bank of the Thames, between Blackfriars and Waterloo Bridges, in September 1999 it became a Foundation School within the London Borough of Lambeth. London Nautical School has a unique nautical ethos. It is very popular and is heavily oversubscribed with four applications for every available place. It serves a very wide catchment area which stretches throughout London. The school has specialist sports status and has gained a number of prestigious accolades including Healthy Schools Standard and the British Council Gold Award for International Work. The well-orchestrated curriculum has recently been re-organised to meet the needs and enthusiasm of all students and provides opportunities for them to broaden their personal and academic skills. These maritime connections offer exciting and unique opportunities for students to acquire new skills through the annual regatta and weekend sailing opportunities.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

European Maritime Radionavigation Forum

Known as the EMRF this body gathers representatives from maritime administrations to shipowners’ organisations to focus on the co-ordination of European maritime interests in the field of radionavigation. One of its main aims is to promote the maritime requirements for the safety assessment and certification of future satellite systems, their augmentation and back-up, and to develop material to achieve recognition and approval as part of IMO’s World-Wide Radionavigation System. EMRF provides the primary focal point for the planning, development, introduction, use and rationalisation of maritime radionavigation services in Europe. It is a widely recognised advisory forum and analyses the cost-effectiveness and risk associated with the maritime use of future satellite navigation systems. This, in turn contributes to the development of the maritime elements of the European Radionavigation Plan (ERNP). To achieve its aims the forum keeps the marine elements of the Plan under timely review and presents its progress to relevant European bodies, national authorities and, when appropriate, international organisations. EMRF is open to participants representing both users and national providers of maritime radionavigation services of European maritime states and organisations.

Royal Liverpool Seamen’s Orphan Institution

Sea Vision UK

A registered charity the Royal Liverpool Seamen’s Orphan Institution covers the whole of the UK and is funded, in the main, by income generated from the fund’s capital. One of the largest independent grant-giving organisations helping those families who have lost a seafaring parent, the institution provides grants for the children throughout their education. There is no automatic entitlement to help from the charity and grants are discretionary and depend on sufficient funds being available. Trustees are responsible for the governance of the Society. Collectively they bring professional experience from the Merchant Navy, legal, marine insurance, fund management and international logistics. With institution’s motto in mind: Supporting Family & Children of Seafarers since 1869, its work continues today from offices in Liverpool where regular committee meetings are held to discuss the progress of the children, approval of grants, considering the many financial aspects and the formulation of plans to implement, still further, the purpose of the institution. There is a small team who put into practice the decisions taken at the committee meetings and the CEO pays regular visits to families throughout the land to learn of the many educational successes beneficiaries have achieved.

This concerns enthusing today’s young people about tomorrow’s maritime opportunities. Established Lead Partners, the Chamber of Shipping, Lloyd’s Register Educational Trust and the Royal Navy, have stated they are delighted to welcome both Seafarers UK and Trinity House as Lead Partners from 2012. Publicising maritime matters through education and careers-related activities, focus is on two distinct products. The first a Digital Information Hub to be launched early this year. It is a combination of a traditional web site but is underpinned by a mix of social networking sites carrying bespoke Sea Vision material with aggregated content encompassing the diversity of maritime activities and news. This will be supplemented by educational modules, the first of which is centred on the voyage of a container ship from Asia to Europe. The aim of the Hub is to translate casual curiosity into informed interest and engagement. The second initiative is founded on educational interaction with secondary school pupils, providing maritimethemed curriculum engagement from Year 7 through to Year 13. This initiative, capable of delivery in any maritime location, will be launched in May, with the pilot running in the Solent area. Success relies upon wholehearted sector support. To find out how you can help tell the excellent story of the marine sector to the rising generation readers are invited to e-mail: [email protected]

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Annual Meeting of the Court 2011 At the Annual Meeting of the Court on 11th May HRH The Princess Royal was elected Master of the Corporation for the ensuing year. Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert was re-elected Deputy Master and Captain Duncan Glass and Captain Nigel Pryke were re-elected Rental Warden and Nether Warden respectively. The Master thanked the Court for her election stating that she was most pleased to be the new Master and was conscious of the unique position that the Corporation held within the country’s maritime affairs. She was also honoured to have been so invited to succeed HRH The Duke of Edinburgh who had guided and encouraged the work of Trinity House for so many years. However, she

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stated that as patron of the Northern Lighthouse Board she already had an indication of the many challenges faced by a Lighthouse Authority, while through her charitable patronages she had frequently been aware of the work done by Trinity House as a charity. She concluded by looking forward to being involved in more of the Corporation’s work and meeting members of the Fraternity. The Deputy Master replied stating that this was a significant moment for the Corporation of Trinity House with The Princess Royal’s election being only the fourth in the last 100 years. Consequently, it was a very great honour for the Fraternity to welcome Her Royal Highness as Master. He then reminded the Court of her knowledge and attention

to navigation safety which is widely applauded. Furthermore that Her Royal Highness’s interests in maritime organisations and charities that promote youth activities at sea and welfare support ashore were very much echoed in the endeavours of the Corporation. He concluded by highlighting the great privilege bestowed upon the Corporation through Her Royal Highness’s acceptance of the Master’s appointment and looked forward to her guidance and leadership over many years ahead. On conclusion of the Court’s proceedings the Elder and Younger Brethren proceeded to the Church of St. Olave for Divine Service at which the Preacher was The Rt Rev & Rt Hon Dr Richard Chartres, Bishop of London.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

The Corporate Year As Trinity House approaches the five hundredth anniversary of the granting of its charter by Henry VIII in 1514 we certainly celebrated some significant events in the year under review. At the Annual Court on 11th May, HRH The Princess Royal, was elected Master of the Corporation by the assembled Brethren. Princess Anne had been admitted to the Fraternity in November 2004 and in July 2009, as an Elder Brother, Her Royal Highness had opened the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre. Already Patron of the Northern Lighthouse Board, The Princess Royal became the first Elder Brother to be elected in accordance with that farsighted provision in the Tudor charter of 1514: ‘as well women as men’. However, she had not been alone; at her initial swearing-in she

had been joined by Captain Wendy Maughan and Captain Barbara Campbell, both seagoing masters, who became Younger Brethren. In standing down as Master of Trinity House, HRH The Duke of Edinburgh had not, of course, relinquished the title of Elder Brother and it gave the Fraternity great pleasure when in Her Majesty’s Birthday Honours in June, she herself transferred the ancient title of Lord High Admiral to her consort. Later that same month, in company with HM The Queen, HRH Prince Philip returned to Trinity House to celebrate his 90th birthday in the company of representatives of the many maritime organisations of which he had been patron. Then in August Her Royal Highness The Master stayed in THV Galatea during Cowes Week. Finally,

on 2nd November 2011, at a splendid dinner presided over by The Princess Royal in her capacity as Master and attended by the Deputy Master and all but a handful of the Elder Brethren, the members of the Court of Trinity House dined out their former Master, HRH The Prince Philip. Shortly before the end of the year, after nine years as Deputy Master, a period during which momentous events had occurred both within and without the Trinity House, Sir Jeremy de Halpert retired. His successor, Captain Ian McNaught, late Master of Queen Elizabeth 2, was elected and sworn-in by The Master at the Quarterly Court on 22nd November 2011. He was duly charged to continue the development of the Corporation of Trinity House in the 21st century and lead it through its quincentenary.

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NEW ELDER BROTHER, NEW YOUNGER BRETHREN, HONOURS AND AWARDS

New Elder Brother

New Younger Brethren We extend a warm welcome to the following who have been sworn in as Younger Brethren of the Corporation of Trinity House. Captain Andrew Betton RN Commanding Officer, HMS Ocean Captain Julian Nicholas Burgess Carnival UK (P&O Cruises) Captain Andrew Keith Cassels BP Shipping Ltd (Manager Marine Standards & SPU Marine Authority)

Captain Nigel Palmer OBE

Captain Nigel Palmer, Younger Brother, was sworn in as an Elder Brother of the Corporation on 22nd November 2011. He commenced his career at sea as a Cadet with the BP Tanker Company. in 1967 and served in a variety of ship types before attaining command in 1984. He subsequently gained experience in a number of shore appointments before attending Business School in 1988. In 1991 he was seconded to the Australian North West Shelf LNG Project in Tokyo and Melbourne, returning to the United Kingdom in 1997 to headup the BP Shipping Fleet of oil, gas and offshore vessels. Following retirement from BP in 2004 he continues to be involved in the shipping industry, and formed his own company in 2005 providing general industry marine advice. Nigel was Chairman of the Merchant Navy Training Board from 2000 to 2010, and has chaired the Maritime Skills Alliance since its formation in 2004. He is Chairman of the Britannia P&I Club, a marine liability insurer, the Marine Society & Sea Cadets (see definitive article on pages 74-75) and was a non-executive Director of the Maritime & Coastguard Agency from 2007 to 2011. He is a Trustee of CHIRP (the Confidential Incident Reporting Facility) and the Shipwrecked Mariners’ Society. He is a past Vice-Chairman of the City of Glasgow College Board. On his appointment as an Elder Brother of Trinity House he was appointed Deputy Chairman of the Lighthouse Board. In 2007 he was appointed OBE for services to the shipping industry. Captain Nigel Palmer lives in Felixstowe, Suffolk, and is married with three adult children. His hobbies include sailing and golf. 6

Captain Peter Charles Chapman-Andrews LVO MBE FRIN MNI RN Director, Royal Institute of Navigation

The Hon Sir David Steel Kt High Court Judge Captain Jonathan Robert Stoneley FIN Environment & Compliance Manager, Cargill Captain William Jonathan Warrender MA RN Commanding Officer, HMS Montrose Captain Andrew Bernard Ward Deep Sea Pilot, George Hammond Plc Captain Stuart Dorian Peter Williams Operations Manager, Foreland Shipping.

Captain Joseph Collins RIN, FNI Senior Marine Consultant (C-Mar Consultants)

Honours and Awards

Captain Martin Connell RN MoD, Navy Resources and Plans; Aviation Warfare

The Rt Hon Admiral The Lord Boyce, GCB OBE DL created a Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter.

Captain Trevor William Dann Commanding Officer, THV Patricia Stephen John Ward Dunning Esq Planning and Performance Manager, Trinity House Sir William Edward Doran Gibbons JP Director, Passenger Shipping Association Alistair John Groom Esq Charles Taylor Consulting Plc

Captain David Smith, OBE FNI RN, awarded the Society for Nautical Research Victory Medal. Captain Richard Woodman FRHistS, FNI, awarded the British Maritime Foundation Maritime Fellowship Award. Vice-Admiral Timothy Lawrence CB MVO ADC appointed KCVO. Vice-Admiral Philip Andrew Jones, appointed CB.

Ms Carol Marlow Managing Director, P&O Cruises

Jan Marceli Kopernicki, appointed CMG.

Captain Malcolm John Morton MNM FNI Fleet Training Officer, Arklow Shipping Ltd

Captain David Parsons, Chief Executive, The Merchant Navy Welfare Board, awarded the Merchant Navy Medal. (see picture below).

Captain Brian Murphy MNI Harbour Master, Poole Harbour Commissioners Captain Richard Laurence Powell MA RN Commanding Officer, HMS Dauntless Jonathan Denis Price Esq Legal & Risk Manager, Trinity House; Deputy Secretary, Corporation of Trinity House. Donald John Ridgway Esq FIMarEST Chief Executive, BP Shipping Ltd Captain Neale Francis Rodrigues Associate Director, Tindall Riley (Britannia) Ltd (Britannia P&I Club) Commander Peter James Sparkes BSc (Hons) RN Navy Command HQ, Portsmouth – Warfare Officers’ Career Manager

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Appointments & Promotions

Diary Dates

Courtesy calls by visiting ships

Dates for the Diary 2012 1st May Annual Meeting of the Court

From time to time British and foreign warships visit London and are berthed in the West India Docks or alongside HMS President or HMS Belfast. In keeping with custom the Commanding Officers pay courtesy calls to Trinity House, the Port of London Authority and the Mayor of Southwark or the Mayor of Tower Hamlets.

13th July

7th London Maritime Charity Ball To be held in HQS Wellington The theme this year will be “Black & White” Booking form may be downloaded from www.hcmm.org.uk For further details contact Alison Harris, Honourable Company of Master Mariners, HQS Wellington, Victoria Embankment, London WC2R 2PN. E-mail: [email protected] ;

HRH The Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh KG KT Master of the Corporation from 1969 to 2011, appointed Lord High Admiral. HRH The Price of Wales KG KT, Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Shipwright’s, installed as Permanent Master of the Company.

Telephone: 0207 836 8179 16th September

Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert KCVO CB FRIN elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of Navigation; elected Honorary Fellow of the Nautical Institute. Elected Honorary Personal Member of IALA; appointed to the Board of the IALA World-Wide Academy.

Merchant Navy Day Wreath laying Merchant Navy War Memorial Tower Hill

Admiral Sir Jock Slater GCB LVO DL, installed as Prime Warden of the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights The Rt Hon The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen KT GCMG Hon FRSE PC appointed Chancellor of the Order of St. Michael & St. George. The Rt Hon Admiral The Lord Boyce KG GCB OBE DL, elected Second Master Warden of the Worshipful Company of Drapers. Captain Ian McNaught elected Treasurer of IALA. Commodore Simon Ancona RN appointed UK Maritime Component Commander. Captain Mike Barritt FNI RN elected President of the Hakluyt Society. Captain Hugh Beard, RN, to be Commanding Officer HMS Westminster. Commodore The Hon Michael Cochrane OBE RN appointed Commodore Portsmouth Flotilla. Commodore Tobin David Elliott OBE RN DL appointed Vice Lord-Lieutenant of the County of Gwent. Jan Kopernicki CMG, appointed Vice-Chairman, RNLI

10th October

Annual National Service for Seafarers at St Paul’s Cathedral

9th November

Ladies’ Night

11th November

Remembrance Sunday Service on Tower Hill (admission to Trinity House afterwards for ticket holders only).

Details of recent visits are as follows: 24th August ARC Gloria, Captain Gabriel Alfonso Perez, Colombian Navy. (see picture above). 30th August NE Brasil, Captain Luiz Octávio Barros Coutinho, Brazilian Navy. 12th September HMS Dauntless, Captain Will Warrender, Royal Navy. HMS Tyne, Lieutenant-Commander Will Peters, Royal Navy. FGS Braunschweig, Commander Boris Bollow, Federal German Navy. 4th October HMS Brocklesby, Lieutenant-Commander James Byron, Royal Navy. 19th October HMS Sutherland, Commander Roger Readwin, Royal Navy. 2nd November HMS Mersey, Lieutenant-Commander Mark Anderson, Royal Navy. 10th November LV Le Hénaff, Lieutenant-Commander Paul Merveilleux du Vignaux, French Navy. Also attending was Commodore Tim Hennessey, Royal Navy, Naval Regional Commander (Eastern) England. 27th January 2012 HMS Liverpool, Commander Colin Williams, Royal Navy. 7

THE THAMES DIAMOND JUBILEE PAGEANT

The Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant At high water in the afternoon of 3rd June, up to a thousand boats will muster on the Thames in preparation for Her Majesty The Queen to take part in the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant. Trinity House No.1 Boat, our Thames Waterman cutter Trinitytide, and our Cornish pilot gig Mermaid will also be part of this historic event which will see one of the largest flotillas ever assembled on the river. This flotilla will be over seven miles in length and including mustering, dispersal and the avenue of sail, will make use of some 25 miles of Thames river bank and pass under 14 bridges and take 90 minutes to pass any given point. This unique spectacle, inspired by a rich history and tradition of entertainment and theatre on the Thames, is expected to include 20,000 participants

on the water, millions of spectators on the river banks and London’s public spaces and a huge global audience with the major broadcasters around the world. Rowed boats and working boats and pleasure vessels of all shapes and sizes will be beautifully dressed, their crews and passengers turned out in their finest rig. Armed forces, fire, police, rescue and other services will also be afloat and there will be many historic boats, wooden launches, steam vessels and other craft of note. Furthermore, the flotilla will be bolstered with passenger vessels expected to be carrying up to 30,000 flag waving members of the public placed centre stage (or rather mid-river) in this floating celebration of Her Majesty’s 60 year reign. The

spectacle will be further enhanced with music barges and boats spouting geysers. Moreover, there will be specially constructed elements such as a floating belfry, its chiming bells answered by those from riverbank churches. The opening ceremony of London’s Olympic Games will be just six weeks away and the public crowding the riverbanks and bridges will give a rousing reception to the many boats that have travelled from far and wide to represent UK port cities, the Commonwealth and international interests. Downriver of London Bridge, there will be a gun salute and the flotilla will passes through a spectacular avenue of sails made by traditional Thames sailing boats, oyster smacks, square riggers, naval vessels and other impressive ships.

An artist’s impression of Royal barge Spirit of Chartwell which will convey Her Majesty and other members of the Royal Family in the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant on 3rd June. Trinity House craft will also take part.

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Thames Waterman Cutter Trinitytide In the year under review our Thames Waterman Cutter Trinitytide made several outings. On 14th May she took part in the Admiral of the Port Race from Westminster to the Tower of London and was placed sixth in full regalia of canopy, pulled by four oars, in the command of a very able coxswain and with an Elder Brother as passenger. The following month Trinitytide was entered in the Ocean to City Race in Cork with a racing crew of seven and one passenger and attained 3rd place of international cutters. On 9th June, with Captain Roger Barker aboard, she took part in the Admiral of The Port Challenge from Westminster Bridge and gained sixth place. In July Trinitytide raced in the Port of London Challenge from HQS Wellington and made 4th. Other events followed throughout the summer including the Great River Race on 17th September (3rd in services class and 4th in the City of London) and on 12th November the cutter was part of the Lord Mayor’s Show Flotilla with Captain and Mrs Trisha Glass as passengers. Trinitytide is expected to take part in at least a dozen events in 2012.

Burgees and Service Insignia The following items are currently available. Orders, accompanied by cheque in favour of ‘The Corporation of Trinity House’, should be sent to The Secretary, Trinity House, Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DH. Price excluding delivery

Ties Fraternity tie (multi silver lions) - polyester - silk Trinity House Service tie (multi red lions) - polyester - silk

£ 7.50 £14.00

Blazer Badges (dark navy/black)

£15.00

Ladies’ Headsquares

£5.00

£7.50 £14.00

Yachting Cap Badge

£10.00

Elder Brethren's Cap Badge (with Band)

£45.00

In addition members of the Fraternity are able to purchase items from the Trinity House list of merchandise including prints of historic lighthouses and DVDs, (The nature of the products changes from time to time). Further information can be found at our website: www.trinityhouse.co.uk , click on ‘Shop’ or by telephone to Marketing on 01255 245034.

YB Burgees

• 18”x 12” • 23”x 16”

£24.00 £28.50

Buttons Black

• large • small

50p 20p

Please add £3.50 per order for postage and packaging. 9

CORPORATE FUNCTIONS

Trinity House as a valuable venue For many years Trinity House has been used as a venue for corporate functions by the business community, particularly maritime clients, and in spite of the difficult economic circumstances income generated is at a satisfactory level. Weddings and private parties also feature in the type of events held in The House. Trinity House is open for functions each day, including the weekends, and rooms can be booked for parts of the day if required allowing breakfast meetings, morning presentations, lunches, receptions, cocktail parties, dinners or whole day events and the House opens all year round except for a four week refit during August (and the period between Christmas and New Year). Income from these room bookings goes towards maintaining the fabric of the 1796-built Grade 1 Listed Trinity House and, furthermore,

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enables the organisation to fund other charitable activities. Recent bookings have been made by organisations as diverse as the RNLI, the Merchant Navy Welfare Board, Class NK, the German National Tourist Office, the Worshipful Company of World Traders, Maritime London, the Department for Education, Inmarsat, the Worshipful Company of Shipwrights, the Fishermen’s Mission, Société Générale, the City Livery Club, JP Morgan, the Port of London Authority, Renault Cars, Bureau Veritas, Germanischer Lloyd, Den Norsk Veritas, the American P&I Club, The Standard P&I Club, Anglo-American, London School of Economics, London Stock Exchange, the Society for Nautical Research, Goldman Sachs, CRF and Strategic Dimension,. We are lucky that many of these organisations are repeat clients.

From time to time facilities are provided to enable the Front Courtyard and the Ceremonial Rooms to feature in film making. We continue to play a part as a member of Unique Venues of London, a select group of spectacular and unusual places for corporate entertainment and we appear on the organisation’s website at: www.uniquevenuesoflondon.co.uk/trinity_house/index.html

Trinity House is also listed in The Condé Nast Recommended Venues Guide, and is a founder member of London City Selection, follow this link: www.londoncityselection.co.uk/venues/trinity-house

which is a selection of special venues and hotels situated specifically within the Square Mile. Edgar King and Zoë Richards at Trinity House have been successful with booking possibilities for The Olympic Games with one client booking The House for an appropriate period

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

And this what some of our clients have said:

“…I would like to thank you once more for your kind hospitality and your support. You made our event a successful gathering for our clients and representatives. We have already got some very nice feedback. Everybody liked the beautiful Trinity House…” “I am writing to see if it would be possible to have an event similar to the one we had two years ago at Trinity House this year. It is a magnificent venue and I believe we will have three times the attendance this year, as everyone realizes the specialness of this venue…” Members of the Fraternity are entitled to a room hire discount of 50% on Mondays and 20% at other times. This discount does not apply to the hire of caterers, florists, musicians or other facilities’ providers. Further details showing the capabilities of Trinity House as a venue are on the Trinity House website at: www.trinityhouse.co.uk/events Further information may be obtained from Edgar King, Corporate Functions Manager on telephone 020 7481 6931; e-mail: [email protected] Join us on Facebook: trinityhouseuk Follow us on Twitter: @trinityhouse_uk

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OBITUARIES

Obituaries It is with regret that we report the deaths of the following members of the Fraternity:

John Backhouse

Former Secretary to the Corporation of Trinity House, died 22nd May 2011, aged 82. John Backhouse, a North Londoner, joined Trinity House from school in 1947 and within a few weeks, found himself in the Royal Artillery, where, in his own words his education was completed. His army service was spent surveying areas of the eastern Libyan province of Cyrenaica that had hitherto been mapped only from the air. Following his return to Trinity House in November 1949, he served in various posts becoming Clerk to the Examining Committee in 1956, Chief Clerk in the Engineer-in-Chief’s Department in 1966, Chief Staff Officer in 1971, Deputy Principal, Lights Department in 1974 and Principal of that Department in 1976. He was sworn in as Secretary to Trinity House in 1984. His time as Secretary to the Corporation of Trinity House probably saw more changes in the organisation of the Service than any previous similar period: Two reports from consultants Arthur Young, one of which led to the setting up of the Lighthouse Board and the other the reductions in the tender fleet to only two vessels with a third held in reserve; a study by consultants Arthur Andersen into Light Dues followed by a Light Dues Working Party whose recommendations were published in 1989; a Green Paper on Pilotage followed by the Pilotage Act 1987; the imposition of Government cash limits on expenditure from the General Lighthouse Fund; Corporate Board reorganisation; Head Office staff reductions and relocation and finally the refurbishment of the Wyatt Building (of 1796) and the redevelopment of the office accommodation, resulting in a move to temporary offices in Portsoken Street. During his time in the Lights Department he oversaw the introduction of helicopter transport, both for reliefs from Lighthouses and Light Vessels and for the transfer of maintenance staff. John Backhouse, who retired in 1989, was a Freeman of the City of London. Steve Dunning, Younger Brother, writes: “I first met John Backhouse in October 1970 when I arrived in Trinity House London as a fresh faced recruit. Those who knew him were very aware that he did not suffer fools gladly. He expected the highest standards from all those who worked directly with him. Slip-ups were not easily forgiven. However, John was also a great teacher who, perhaps because of his own 12

exemplary standards, made sure that you understood clearly what was expected of you. I still flinch at the memory of a lecture following the splitting of an infinitive in a draft Notice to Mariners. “John was dedicated to Trinity House and endeavoured to make sure that in his dealings both with internal Boards and Committees and with external authorities decisions were always right for the organisation. He was persistent in going back until people eventually got the message. During his time as Principal of the Lights Department he was a major influence in the early days of lighthouse and light vessel automation…”

Captain Derrick Barrow (Roll No. 38)

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 1975, died 18th January 2012, aged 93. Retired Cinque Ports Pilots and one of the longest serving Younger Brethren of the Corporation. He had lived in Spain for from 1987 to 1989, before moving back to Kent and he spent his last days in Hythe.

fleet. He was a stickler for correctness in both his professional and personal life and woe betide anyone who transgressed his high standards. I had the pleasure of being a colleague and friend spanning 50 years, sailing as his Deputy Captain on a number of occasions, but mainly in Pacific Princess and Canberra where I had met him first in the early 1960s. He had been selected to be one of the initial First Officers of Canberra during her construction and later was Deputy Captain when she went down to the Falklands with the Task Force. For his efforts there and for his work with the RNR he was appointed CBE. He loved private flying and his son, a professional pilot, undertook to teach his father the ropes, a brave man indeed. This gave him intense pleasure and together with his communication skills was a unique character. He was once known to conduct ship’s business from 1500ft soaring overhead Canberra at anchor in Charlotte Amalie, St Thomas VI. He contributed widely to the maritime world by his work in retirement for Combat Stress of which he was a Trustee and for the RNLI. He was a fount of knowledge to whom everyone naturally turned for information about shipmates long before the Internet.”

Commodore Michael Verney Bradford CBE RD RNR

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 1980, died 14th June 2011 aged 80. He first went to sea in 1952 and between then and 1970 served in all ranks up to Chief Officer with the P&O Steam Navigation Company Limited in its passenger and cargo ships trading to the Far East, India, Australia, South Africa and the Baltic. In 1971 he briefly commanded Pando Sound in Home Trade. From 1972 to 1980 he served widely as Captain or Deputy Captain in Oriana, Pacific Princess and Sun Princess cruising in Alaskan, Mexican and Caribbean waters. From 1956 to 1965 as a member of the Royal Naval Reserve he served in HMSs Torquay, Bossington, Virago and St David with the Home Fleet, the Mediterranean Fleet and in the Caribbean. A member of the Royal Institute of Navigation and a Liveryman of the Honourable Company of Master Mariners, he was also a Member of the Guild of Freemen of the City of London Captain Ian Gibb, Elder Brother, writes, “Mike Bradford or ‘Sammy’ as he was known throughout the P&O fleet was a dedicated mariner in both Merchant and RNR disciplines rising to the rank of Commodore in the latter and Senior Captain in the P&O/Princess

Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Buchanan, KBE, FNI MRIN

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 1963, died 23rd November 2011, aged 86. He served in HMS King George V in 1944 and 1945 and this was followed by time in destroyers and frigates in the Atlantic, the Far East, the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. From 1956 to 1958 he was on the staff of the Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth and served in HMS Birmingham from 1958 to 1960. His first command was Scarborough the following year and in 1967 he was promoted Captain. As Fleet Operations Officer in the Far East from 1963 to 1964 he was Mentioned in Despatches. In 1967 and 1968 he served with the British Antarctic Survey and for the following two years commanded the Antarctic patrol ship Endurance. His skills proved that the route now known as the Buchanan Passage can be used to reach Marguerite Bay from the North. He became Naval Assistant to the Second Sea Lord in 1970 following which he commanded HMS Devonshire from 1972 to 1974. After promotion to Rear-Admiral and a spell as

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Remembrance

Director of Naval Manpower Planning he was appointed Naval Secretary from 1976 to 1978. Following promotion to Vice- Admiral, he was appointed Chief of Staff, Allied Forces Southern Europe in 1979. He was appointed KBE in 1980 and retired in 1982. In 1996 he became Master of the Guild of Freemen of the City of London

Captain Edward Callow

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 1970, died 8th June 2011 aged 89. Born in Castletown in the Isle of Man he passed for Second Mate in 1942 having served as an Indentured Apprentice with Ellerman Hall Line. He served in vessels under the Ministry of War Transport until 1944 when he rejoined Ellerman Lines. From 1947 he was with the Ellerman & Papayanni Lines Limited trading to Portugal and the Mediterranean as well as the Great Lakes. His first command was Mercian in 1956 which vessel he took over from the builders in Leith.

David Coltman

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 2010, died 9th June 2011, aged 69. Non-Executive Member of the Trinity House Lighthouse Board. Educated at Eton and Edinburgh University where he studied chemical engineering he was involved at a high level in the international airline business and with travel services and investment interests for more than 40 years. During this time he was Chief Executive of British Caledonian Airways, Chief Marketing Officer of the US United Airlines and for 15 years served with British Airways. Apart from these interests he was passionately involved in charitable work one example being effort to finance £7 million necessary to complete a Scottish hospice expansion project estimated to cost £26 million. In a tribute to the Service Sir Jeremy de Halpert wrote, “Prior to his work with Trinity House, David was a senior figure in the airline industry, and in financial investment. He became a Non-Executive Director in October 2001 and brought significant strategic thinking, financial management and direction to our Board. The experience and knowledge he applied over his nine year tenure proved to be invaluable, as he helped shape and influence significant Trinity House success stories.

He guided the Board through the delivery of our depot rationalisation, Business Process Review, and our new ships; and he was a keen supporter and advocate of eLoran and e-Navigation. David was well known and highly respected in the Service and the Fraternity…” Captain Henry William Phillips MNI

Admitted as a Younger Brother in 1975, died 19th December 2011 aged 80. From 1937 to 1941 he served in the J Cory & Sons vessel Coryton in tramping trades. He served in various vessels of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary from 1941 to 1948 mainly in Arctic and Pacific waters. For three years to 1951 he served in a relieving capacity in dredgers and research vessels, two years of which were ashore as a quantity surveyor with George Wimpy. A further six months were spent in cable ships. During his time in the dredging fleet, in the port of Bristol, he developed a practical interest in pilotage, its management and administration and, furthermore, its relationship to port infrastructure and shipping generally. Captain Phillips was a first class pilot in the port of Plymouth from 1951 to 1960 and held the same grade from 1960 in the port of Milford Haven.

On 4th September, Merchant Navy Day, the Deputy Master laid the Corporation’s wreath at the Merchant Navy War Memorial on Tower Hill. At a ceremony organised by the Honourable Company of Master Mariners he laid a further wreath there on Remembrance Sunday, 13th November. This year’s Remembrance Day service will be held on 11th November and, as in past years, the number of those attending afterwards at Trinity House has had to be strictly limited. Admission is by written invitation under the control of the Honourable Company who will invite wreath-layers and others actively involved in this service.

Annual National Service for Seafarers The 2012 Annual National Service for Seafarers will be held in St Paul’s Cathedral on Wednesday 10th October at 1700. The preacher’s name will be confirmed in due course. Please note that, once again, the time of commencement of the service, 1700, has been brought forward by 30 minutes as last year and for future years. Those wishing to apply for tickets should contact the Hon. Secretary, ANSS, The Mission to Seafarers, St Michael Paternoster Royal, College Hill, London EC4R 2RL with applications to arrive by 27th August. The Hon Secretary would appreciate if those booking tickets mention that they are from the Fraternity. Please enclose a stamped addressed envelope. The tickets are free of charge but any donation towards the costs of the service will be gratefully received by the Organising Committee. The date of the 2013 Annual National Service for Seafarers has now been announced and it will take place on 16th October next year. The preacher’s name will be published in the 2013 Review.

A small number of invitations are available from Trinity House and any member of the Fraternity who would like to attend at the House should contact the Secretary by 8th October. Please state whether you wish to apply for a single or double ticket. 13

aroundthe Fraternity Chemical Industry Captain Howard Snaith, Younger Brother, was appointed as General Manager of The Chemical Distribution Institute (CDI) in October 2011. This is the overall “not for profit” Foundation which runs three schemes: CDI-Marine; CDI-Terminals and IMPCAS. The Foundation is a non-profit making organisation founded and funded by the international chemical industry. It is responsible for the accreditation of inspectors and auditors in these schemes within the chemical transportation industry. CDI-Marine, created in 1994, now provides annual inspection reports on the world fleet of chemical and LPG tankers, almost 800 shipowners with over 4000 ships participate in the scheme. Inspections are conducted by 86 accredited inspectors globally. It is an information provider to EQUASIS, the European Commission’s Quality in Shipping Campaign and via the EQUASIS web site; ship inspection reports are available to the Port

State authorities. In 1997, this process was expanded to include the Bulk Liquid terminals under a new audit protocol scheme called CDI-Terminals. Similar to the Marine scheme; its purpose is to improve the safety and quality performance of bulk liquid storage terminals. 80 major chemical storage terminal companies are participants in the Terminals scheme with 35 CDI-T Accredited inspectors carrying out the detailed management and technical inspections of liquid storage terminals worldwide. In 2002 was commenced the International Marine Packed Cargo Audit Scheme (IMPCAS), potentially the largest of its kind with over 200 auditors based in the major container ports to provide reports on each category of supply chain service provider. 14

Counter Narcotics On leaving the Joint Helicopter Command after just over three years in command, Vice-Admiral Tony Johnstone-Burt, Younger Brother, was asked by General David Petraeus and Ambassador Mark Sedwill to help them to sort out the ISAF Counter Narcotics and Transnational Organised Crime strategy for the campaign. Within weeks he was in HQ ISAF, in Kabul facing a significant challenge. Afghanistan currently supplies over 94% of the world’s heroin and at least 90% of that ends up on the streets of the UK. The narcotics and organised crime business in Afghanistan is controlled by relatively few Drug Trafficking Networks who operate as a unique Afghan Mafia, trading indiscriminately in drugs, weapons, precursor chemicals, ammunition and people, to name but a few. The country’s borders are completely porous, the border police are corrupt and ‘bought’ by the drug barons

and many of the Government officials (including the Afghan National Police) are renowned for their double standards and corruption. To compound the issue, there exists an unholy alliance between a trinity of the Insurgents, the Drug Traffickers and the Criminal Networks, all of whom capitalise on their mutual interdependence in order to pursue their own ends, whilst exploiting the Afghan people and undermining the viability of the State. Six months later, at the end of his operational tour he wrote, “I’d like to think that we’d put the Counter Narcotics wagon back on track. Having been considered ‘an inconvenient truth’ for far too long, the Commander ISAF (General David Petraeus and then General John Allen) agreed to make Counter Narcotics a central pillar of the ISAF campaign, and commit the resources to taking the fight to the Afghan Mafia as well as to the Insurgents. After establishing the strategic priorities and streamlining the intelligence collection assets and organisation, we established a Top 40 list of Most Wanted which comprised the top Drug Trafficking Networks, the Drug Kingpins, the Corrupt Key Actors and the Criminal Patronage Networks. An Afghan Intelligence fusion and law enforcement capability was launched in order to give them an independent capability prior to Transition at the end of 2014. And a Regional and Transnational focus was established to track Threat Finance flows from Afghanistan through Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe.” He continued, “Whilst there were clear signs of success with increasing numbers of drug seizures and arrests, there is much more to do...”

Cargo Liners The Cargo Liners: An Illustrated History by Ambrose Greenway, Elder Brother, is now available in paperback at £18.99 from Seaforth Publishing. Well illustrated with a magnificent collection of more than 300 photographs it begins with the establishment of routes around Europe and across the North Atlantic in the 1850s. Opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cemented the dominance of the cargo liner over sail and it was not until the appearance of the first container ship in the 1950s that such dominance was threatened. Contains exceptionally well drafted introductory texts and substantial picture captions.

Ambrose Greenway

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Christ’s Hospital Charity and Education Few will need reminding that Trinity House regularly supports a number of maritime charities and details are to be found in the pages of this edition of The Trinity House Fraternity Review. For many years now Rear-Admiral John Lang, Younger Brother, has been involved in a number of these and sees at first hand what a difference the Trinity House grants make to the lives of so many beneficiaries. A day rarely passes when he is not involved with at least one of the organisations and finds his links to them all to be every bit as rewarding as ever. He stood down as Chairman of the Shipwrecked Mariners’ Society in October 2011 but continues to be Deputy Chairman of the Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen and this provides him with the opportunity to see some of the problems affecting the UK’s deep sea fishing industry at a time of immense change. He continues to be the President of the Association of Sail Training Organisations (ASTO) and also chairman of the Trustee Directors of Nautilus International, the union for maritime professionals. In this capacity he also sits on the Nautilus Welfare Committee which is responsible for the very impressive Mariners’ Park Estate for retired seafarers at Wallasey on Merseyside. Trinity House has approved an extensive grant towards development of facilities here and inauguration is expected to be in our quincentennial year of 2014.

Christ’s Hospital’s Model United Nations (MUN) team won second place participating in its first nationwide MUN Tournament in March. Beating thirty-five other schools from across the country, the team of Sixth Form students were presented with a Silver Outstanding Delegation Award at the closing ceremony. The topic debated was “Building a Peaceful and Better World through Sport”. Over 550 young runners from over 35 Sussex schools competed for individual and team medals at the Sussex county cross-country championships held at Christ’s Hospital on 15th March. Two pupils from Christ’s Hospital both achieved county titles by winning gold medals. More than 100 young musicians who form the famous band from Christ’s Hospital School, have been invited to Lord’s for the England vs West Indies First Test on 19th May. Wearing their distinctive Tudor style uniform, they will entertain the crowd during the interval. Christ’s Hospital is an 11-18 independent boarding and day school for children from all walks of life. Founded in

1552 in the City of London, the School moved to Horsham in West Sussex just over a century ago. Day places have recently been introduced and the School has an impressive history of high academic achievement. Following 2011 exam results, 96% of pupils gained places at university with 14 entering Oxford or Cambridge. For more information: www.christs-hospital.org.uk Rear-Admiral David Cooke, Younger Brother, is Clerk & Chief Executive of Christ’s Hospital Foundation.

Gibraltar Much has happened in and around Gibraltar since the last Fraternity Review. Vice-Admiral Sir Adrian Johns, Younger Brother, is currently Governor. He writes, “Of particular note, we have seen twice as many naval ship movements in 2011 as in the previous year, owing, of course, to operations in the Gulf and off Libya. A visible naval presence is always welcome in Gibraltar and the only complaint from us all on the Rock is that ships just don’t seem to stay long enough these day. Over the same period, the cruise industry has done well with 187 ship visits bringing a remarkable 330,000 passengers to the Rock – that’s over ten times the normal population of Gibraltar and a very welcome influx of potential customers for the traders on Main Street. It was a great pleasure in the autumn to host Sir Jeremy de Halpert on his last visit as Deputy Master to Europa Point Lighthouse. And just a couple of weeks later we welcomed Mike Penning, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Transport, who also visited the lighthouse. 2011 has been a busy year and 2012 promises to be every bit as interesting with new governments in both Gibraltar and Spain and with a Royal Visit planned as part of our Diamond Jubilee celebrations.” HMS Daring off Europa Point on her way to the Gulf, the first operational deployment of a T45.

Trustees and some staff of the RNMDSF together with crew onboard the Peterhead fishing vessel Favonius alongside at Peterhead at the end of August 2011. Admiral Lang, extreme left.

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aroundthe Fraternity Historic ships

On 7th December the World Ship Trust’s Special Award was presented by Lord Greenway, Chairman of the Trust, Elder Brother, to US Coast Guard Cutter Taney, preserved in Baltimore. Guests came from across the US historic ship and maritime museum community. This award was made in recognition of her preservation as a fitting representative of the great traditions of the United States Coast Guard, the USA’s oldest maritime service, founded in 1790. Through her exemplary service, the Taney demonstrates the unwavering commitment of the USCG to the maintenance of maritime law and safety and occupies a unique place in the history of the Second World War, not only through her fine record in both the Atlantic and Pacific theatres, but also as the last surviving ship afloat present in Hawaii during the infamous attack on Pearl Harbor on 7th December, 1941. Taney is one of the famed Secretary/Treasury Class Coast Guard cutters built in the mid-1930s and which saw extensive service in war and peace for half a century. Taney’s keel was laid on 1st May

Imperial War Museum

1935 at the Philadelphia Navy Yard where she was built alongside three of her sister ships, Campbell, Duane and Ingham. Of 327 feet loa, with a beam of 41 feet, and originally displacing 2000 tons, Taney was designed for peacetime missions of law enforcement, search and rescue, and maritime patrol. Her original armament consisted of two 5"/51 calibre deck guns, and two 6-pounder saluting guns. Taney was also originally equipped to carry a Grumman JF-2 Duck float plane.

At the Imperial War Museum where Admiral the Lord West, Younger Brother, is a Trustee it was reported at the beginning of 2012 that initial support had been received from the Heritage Lottery Fund for the First World War Centenary project. This initial support means the museum can progress their plans further to secure a full HLF grant of £4.5 million and this project will transform IWM London by creating new First World War galleries in time for the centenary of the First World War in 2014. The galleries will be complemented by a programme of participatory learning activities. It is understood that the new First World War galleries at IWM London are a key part of the Museum’s plans to mark the First World War Centenary over 2014 to 2018 by leading a vibrant, four year programme of cultural activities across the country. The galleries will be 45% larger than the museum’s existing First World War galleries enabling it to display much more of its world renowned First World War Collection which includes art, film, sound recordings

and photographs. Original objects such as personal items, letters and diaries will be exhibited in highly interactive, multimedia displays which explore the personal stories of those who lived, fought and died. IWM is currently fundraising to meet the full £35 million project cost of the First World War galleries, as well as improvements to the Atrium and upgraded visitor facilities for 2014.

IMRF The International Maritime Rescue Federation (IMRF) is a charity with consultative status at the IMO. The IMRF represents about 70 of the world's maritime search and rescue (SAR) organisations, including, in the UK, the RNLI and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. The Federation exists primarily to enable such organisations to share their lifesaving ideas, technologies and experiences, and to freely co-operate with one another to achieve their common humanitarian aim: preventing loss of life in the world’s waters. Last year the IMRF held its quadrennial World Maritime Rescue Congress in Shanghai. Major streams of work at the Congress included the IMRF’s projects on developing guidelines for the design and operation of maritime rescue vessels of less than 24 metres in length; and on large scale (‘mass’) rescue operations. The sinking of the Costa Concordia obviously focuses attention on the latter project, but the IMRF’s project includes all kinds of maritime mass rescue incidents. Costa Concordia created headlines around the world. The loss of the Spice Islander off Zanzibar in September, for example, was less well-reported, although over 200 died. The IMRF hopes to be able to help improve the response to all such accidents. Captain Michael Vlasto, Younger Brother, is 16

Chairman of the IMRF Board of Trustees and was re-elected for a second four-year term in August. To this end the second IMRF conference on mass rescue operations will be held in Gothenburg, from 3rd to 5th June 2012. See www.international-maritime-rescue.org for more details.

HMS Dunraven, in action against the submarine that sank her, 8th August 1917. Oil on canvas by Charles Pears. 590 mm x 889 mm IWM ART 5130 Imperial War Museum. ©The Royal Society of Marine Artists.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

MCA Lighthouse Service operations Steve Dunning, Younger Brother, is currently serving as Planning and Performance Manager in Trinity House, based at Harwich where he is deputy to the Director of Operations. He is responsible for day-to-day planning of operations front end activities including the deployment of ships and helicopters. He is responsible for the management of the Trinity House Operations and Planning Centre (OPC) which monitors the performance of all Trinity House aids to navigation. The OPC recently assumed responsibility for monitoring the aids to navigation of the Northern Lighthouse Board and Commissioners of Irish Lights on an out-of-hours basis. In excess of 1300 aids to navigation now come under the mantle of the OPC. Liaison has to be maintained with other maritime organisations to ensure the mariner is kept informed of any alterations or

casualties. His team liaises with other Trinity House managers to facilitate the transport of personnel and materials around the service. In addition Steve manages the Trinity House Quality Management System ensuring that all Lighthouse Service activities comply with internationally recognised standards. He leads on commercial activities which in recent years have seen the income from third party work exceed £2 million per annum.

Vice-Admiral Sir Alan Massey, Younger Brother, is Chief Executive of the Agency and he writes, “Listing the highlight achievements of the Maritime and Coastguard Agency in 2011 risks overlooking much of the hard graft that goes on daily. This is

MAIB If the introduction of new European accident investigation legislation and a reduction in staffing levels because of budget cuts made 2011 an interesting year for the Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB); then the 1864 accidents reported to the Branch, also made it a busy year. In order to complete their investigations inspectors travelled as far afield as Shanghai and Costa Rica, although it must be said that the vast majority of investigations were conducted within the UK. Captain Emma Tiller, Younger Brother, is an Inspector of Marine Accidents at the MAIB. She reports that in 2011, the Branch published 29 reports. Of particular note was the Commodore

The aftermath of the fire in the Commodore Clipper.

Clipper report which saw a recommendation for the review of emergency evacuation procedures used for pedestrians on board ro-ro passenger vessels to be taken forward to the IMO. As she writes, “Who would have thought that such a high level submission would be achieved from a cargo of hot potatoes?” The tragic fatal accident involving the rescue boat of the car carrier Tombarra in February 2011, led to the publication of not one, but two safety bulletins such was the urgency of the safety issues identified by the investigation. One hopes that the issues identified in the bulletins and reports published by the MAIB in 2011, are not repeated in 2012.

what has made the MCA envied and emulated over many years. Nevertheless we must look to the future, and our work includes updating the way we conduct ship survey and inspection; consolidating our maritime safety regulations under the Government’s Red Tape Challenge; and of course modernising the Coastguard organisation to improve the way we co-ordinate maritime Search and Rescue around the UK. Ministers announced in November 2011 our plans to create a new, nationally networked SAR co-ordination service. The new structure will be anchored in a Maritime Operations Centre based in Fareham and nine further centres in Dover, Falmouth, Milford Haven, Holyhead, Belfast, Stornoway, Shetland, Aberdeen and Humber. The London centre will remain collocated with the Port of London Authority at the Thames barrier. All centres will operate 24/7. Our new structure will allow regular officers of HM Coastguard to fully use their skills, be fairly rewarded and follow more diverse career paths. We will also be putting more regular Coastguard officers into coastal communities to improve our response to incidents using local volunteers with local knowledge. At the heart of this modernisation project is our continuing commitment to the safety of the mariner and coastal user…” 17

aroundthe Fraternity Nautical Institute “The 40th year of the Institute had its fair share of reflection but to a great extent addressed present problems and forecast improvements in our profession to ensure a safer and more efficient future,” reported Philip Wake, Younger Brother, Chief Executive of the Institute. “The well established Command Seminar series was run on its now usual three yearly cycle with excellent support for the UK seminar in Bristol from Trinity House. We were delighted to have eight Merchant Navy Scholarship cadets (pictured above)and contributing so well to the discussions on the ship/port interface. Samantha Mason gave a good summing up on behalf of the cadets. Financial support from Trinity House was also used to ensure active seafarers attended and. The remainder of the series took place abroad in the. All were well subscribed and, addressed many of the problems of our industry – piracy, criminalization, manning, fatigue, seamanship and communication – for input to the IMO and elsewhere. Meanwhile the Institute’s work on the safe implementation of new technology such as ECDIS and the IMO’s e-Navigation project continues apace with our focus continuing to be on effective training and the input of end user needs. Publications had a largely consolidating year with work continuing on many new titles and editions. A new editor, Lucy Budd, was welcomed to Seaways on the retirement of Claire Walsh and a digital version is being researched. Dynamic Positioning Operator training accreditation and certification continues to grow fast and the Institute with industry stakeholders has reviewed and enhanced the regulations for this scheme. The Institute’s 40th Anniversary will conclude with this year’s Annual General Meeting to be held in York on 24th /25th May at which Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert, will be presented with the Honorary Fellowship of the Institute in recognition of his tremendous contribution to safe navigation and the industry generally. The Institute currently has more than 6000 members in 109 countries with 45 voluntary branches.

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MAIIF The Marine Accident Investigators’ International Forum (MAIIF) is an international non-profit organisation dedicated to the advancement of maritime safety and the prevention of marine pollution through the exchange of ideas, experiences and information acquired in marine accident investigation. Its purpose is to promote and improve marine accident investigation, and to foster co-operation and communication between marine accident investigators. Objectives of MAIIF are: (a) To foster, develop and sustain a co-operative relationship among national marine investigators for the purpose of improving and sharing of knowledge in an international forum. (b) To improve maritime safety and the prevention of pollution through the dissemination of information gained in the investigative process and (c) To encourage through co-operation the development, recognition, implementation and improvement of related international instruments, where appropriate. Membership is open to any individual who is appointed as a marine accident investigator, or is a person employed in the process of marine accident investigation (other than a person representing commercial or private interests outside an administration). These aims and objectives and the constitution of MAIIF are set out in the MAIIF Charter. Commodore David Squire, Elder Brother, is General Secretary of the Forum.

Mary Rose Trust 2012 is a momentous year for the Mary Rose, the 30th anniversary of the raising. The new museum building will be handed over to the Trust soon after Easter for the fitting out of the new exhibition. After constant spraying, the sprays can now be switched off and the drying process commenced. The new museum in Portsmouth Historic Dockyard is expected to be open to the public in late 2012 and the thousands of stunning artefacts will be seen displayed in a very remarkable way. Most will be placed into the mirror image half of the hull which has been built opposite the Mary Rose itself, in the position in which they were found. Visitors will walk through the Gun, Hold and the Castle decks, looking at the artefacts on one side and at the ship on the other. Until 2016, they will see through windows, the hull being dried by large hot air ducts. Once this last phase of conservation is complete, these windows and wall will be removed entirely. At either end of the ship, at the three levels, the galleries will tell the story of the key members of the ship’s company through their possessions, both professional and personal. In all, this museum displays the time capsule which reflects life and death 500 years ago and marks the birth of our standing navy. Rear-Admiral John Lippiett, Younger Brother, is Chief Executive of the Mary Rose Trust.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Navigation At Trinity House on Tower Hill, Captain Nick Dodson, Younger Brother, reports that the Navigation Directorate had another busy year in 2011 which saw the retirement of the Navigation Services Officer, John Cannon after 38 years’ service, 13 of which were in this directorate.

Merchant Navy Training Board Throughout the year the Merchant Navy Training Board (MNTB) has been dealing with a range of issues and developing new projects and work to enable officer training to be as effective as possible, to retain the high recruitment levels experienced over the last five years and to ensure Merchant Navy careers’ promotion reaches as many young people, parents, careers advisers and teachers as possible. Commodore David Squire, Elder Brother, Chairman MNTB reports that changes to further and higher education funding mean that officer training programmes will be more expensive as of September 2012, and sponsoring companies are looking at ways of stripping out unnecessary costs, improving recruitment and retention, and securing greater commitment from trainees on achievement of their Officer of the Watch Certificate of Competency. New ratings programmes have been developed as apprenticeships and a small number of companies are looking to commence rating training as a result. Work is underway to incorporate the requirements of STCW 2010 Manila amendments into MNTB course criteria. Launch of an On Board Training DVD complements exciting new developments in MNTB services to UK seafarer education, training and careers’ promotion.

National Maritime Museum

An exhibition entitled Royal River: Power, Pageantry and the Thames will be the National Maritime Museum’s contribution to the celebrations of HM The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee. David Starkey is the guest curator. Lord Sterling, Elder Brother, Chairman of the National Maritime Museum’s Trustees commented, “2012 will be a remarkable year. In addition to the momentous occasion of The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee, Greenwich will become London’s new Royal Borough and a major venue for the 2012 Games. Royal River will be the first major exhibition in the Museum’s new Sammy Ofer Wing in 2012. It gives us great pleasure that this exhibition has been sponsored by a great British bank, Barclays. This year also marks the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Museum. On 27 April 1937 the 11-year-old Princess Elizabeth attended the

opening ceremony as a birthday treat, beginning an enduring royal association with the museum. This association has continued with HRH The Duke of Edinburgh who over 63 years, first as a trustee and from 2000 as Patron, has given the Museum the great benefit of his constant and extraordinarily active support.” Jan Kopernicki,Younger Brother, and Admiral the Lord Boyce, Elder Brother, were appointed Trustees of the Museum in 2003 & 2005 respectively.

Marine Society & Sea Cadets Captain Nigel Palmer, Elder Brother, Chairman of MS & SC, writes, “I am delighted to announce that we have completed a renewal of our Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the MoD. This together with a new Partnering Charter reaffirms the strong relationship between the Sea Cadets and the Royal Navy and sets out the basis for this over the next five years. The MOU has been greatly improved, with the inclusion of an Accounting Officer role in respect of Grant in Aid monies, clarification of the on-going support, including use of facilities and a set of strategic objectives against which to measure our continued successful delivery of the organisation. In a period of considerable flux for the Royal Navy and MoD the time and effort applied to this renewal at the highest levels is impressive and a clear demonstration of the level of support and confidence in the Sea Cadets. It is of course also testament to the work of the Sea Cadets in inspiring young people through fun and adventurous nautical activity and the traditions and ethos of the Royal Navy to learn new skills and gain a head start in life.” Fifty-four Trinity 500s will be joining over 1000 vessels set to travel the seven mile route down the Thames in the spectacular celebration of the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee on 2nd June.

That knowledge has been retained in the department with the internal promotion of Stephen Vanstone and we also welcomed Stephanie Banner who joined us from the UKHO. As the consenting authority for the provision of aids to navigation, over 600 applications for sanction, to add, change or remove seamarks were considered by the Examination Committee. These included diverse applications such as Dredging and Marine Extraction; Wellheads; Drilling Rigs; Production Platforms; Pipelines; Cable crossings; Oceanographic buoys; Wind Farms; Surveys; Harbour Redevelopment; Boreholes and Yacht Racing Marks. The Directorate also gave general marking advice to Harbour Authorities, Government Agencies, Maritime Consultants and members of the Public. Thirty-one new wrecks or obstructions were reported, some required surveying and marking with aids to navigation dependent on the consideration of the degree of risk and volume of traffic. Furthermore 52 Trinity House Notices to Mariners were issued advising of changes to Trinity House Aids to Navigation. Trinity House responsibilities include the annual inspection and auditing of local aids to navigation. In 2011, the Inspector of Seamarks and Local Seamarks Auditor inspected no fewer than 9799 aids to navigation and audited 60 Competent Harbour Authorities as well as the inspection of 136 offshore oil and gas structures within the Trinity House area of responsibility. 19

aroundthe Fraternity RNLI It was reported by Captain Michael Vlasto, Younger Brother, Operations Director of the RNLI that 2011 was the second busiest year for the Institute with its lifeboats launching 8,896 times rescuing 7,976 people. The four Thames stations were once again very busy, covering over 10% of services with 919 launches and 245 people rescued. Lifeguards, now in their eleventh season, expanded their coverage to 163 beaches, attending 15,626 incidents and saving 84 lives. He writes, “We have developed a new All Weather lifeboat strategy working towards three classes of ALB to meet the RNLI’s future requirements. The newest of these is the FCB2 (Fast Carriage Boat) with the prototype having undergone a successful self righting trial, now about to start sea trials. Once accepted as an operational Lifeboat, this class will be known as the Shannon Class. Our fleet of inshore lifeboats continues to perform well, carrying out 60% of the services undertaken. The RNLI’s flood response capability has been enhanced further this year with a dedicated Flood Response Manager in place to bring some better co-ordination across the six operating divisions. The Institute offered its services for deployment to Pakistan during their major flood event however this was not taken up mainly for security issues. During 2011, competencies have been rolled out to all shore crew and flood rescue team members and 2012 will see an expansion of the competencies for lifeguards. The Lifeboat College has re-branded as the RNLI College to recognise the inclusion of Lifeguard and staff training and has taken on a more active role in the generation of income for the charity by the provision of commercial training. This has included other blue light and SAR services, as well as corporate team building type events.”

Passenger Shipping Association The Passenger Shipping Association (PSA) is the trade body for the cruise and ferry industries in the UK and has 45 cruise line members, 11 ferry operators and 86 associate members. Sir William Gibbons, Younger Brother, is Director of the Association. The PSA promotes travel by sea and participates in Government discussions on a number of issues on behalf of both cruise and ferry members and is widely recognised as representing all passenger shipping interests within Britain. Cruise line and ferry members work together to promote travel by sea and river to the consumer through the public relations campaigns Discover Cruises and Discover Ferries. The Association also undertakes the administration of the cruiseBritain campaign designed to publicise Britain as a cruise destination. Spirit of France, P&O Ferries; launched February 2012

The PSA has a subsidiary company – the Association of Cruise Experts (ACE) – to provide an educational programme for travel agents. Within the cruise industry and further afield, January 2012 will be remembered for the tragic events surrounding the Concordia incident. During this time the PSA worked closely with cruise shipping associations in the USA and Europe, together with members and industry partners to reassure the public and inform the media that cruising remains one of the safest forms of holiday.

Offshore Decommissioning Indefatigable is defined in the dictionary as “untiring – never showing signs of giving up” which seems somewhat ironic as, after nearly 35 years, the Shell Indefatigable Gas Field in the Southern North Sea came to the end of its productive life. The Gas Field was discovered in 1966 and brought on-stream in the early ’70s. It ceased production in 2005 and the long process of decommissioning all six Shell INDE Platforms began. Captain John Bird,

20

INDE Lima platform topsides being lifted clear of the jacket by the Seaways heavy lift barge Stanislav Yudin.

Younger Brother, writes, “My involvement began in 2009 after the initial stages of using a Drilling Rig to plug the abandoned wells and a Jack-up Support Barge to remove all reusable items of equipment including the aids to navigation. Working closely with the commercial team at Trinity House, the solution was to move up to 22 cardinal buoys several times a year over a period of three years to accommodate all activities on the Field. The platforms have all been successfully removed and taken to Wallsend Yard in Newcastle for disposal – the first such field in Europe to be totally decommissioned. An interesting and at times intensive three year period for me as the onshore and offshore Shell Southern North Sea Marine Consultant.”

Seafarers’ Welfare At the Merchant Navy Welfare Board, Captain David Parsons, Younger Brother, is Chief Executive. The Board’s primary role is within the Merchant Navy and fishing sectors in support of its Constituent charities and 16 port welfare committees, the latter covering the UK coastline and Gibraltar. The two are complimentary and both meet regularly, the former usually in forums covering specific interests. All meetings are serviced by Board staff which enables wide dissemination of information. Support projects, utilising outside organisations if appropriate, include: Evaluation of existing and proposed new welfare services such as seafarers’ homes and port based welfare provision; training courses for ship welfare visitors, caseworkers, managing difficult behaviour, bereavement and the ILO’s Maritime Labour Convention 2006 and

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Vessel Traffic Services

The MNWB Annual Conference of its Constituent and Port Welfare Committee members at Trinity House on 14th June 2011

arranging home visits for trained caseworkers and acting as a clearing house to find assistance for those seeking help as well as the provision of information. The Board relies largely on investment income and despite the economic downturn, it awarded £217,000 in grants to its Constituents 2011 in addition to the support services. It works closely with other support charities, including Trinity House and Seafarers UK, through the Maritime Charities’ Funding Group. This enables large cross sector projects (including the Royal Navy) to be undertaken and collaboration to meet larger grant applications. On behalf of MCFG it provides a free phone and online referral service, Seafarers Support, and maintains the online Maritime Charities’ Handbook. More information can be found on: www.mnwb.org

David Smith’s drive and perseverance she would not have been transformed from rotting hulk to the icon she is today.” HMS Trincomalee, built in Bombay for the Admiralty in 1817, is the oldest ship afloat in the UK. She saw service in the West Indies and throughout the Pacific in the 19th century before taking a role as a training vessel, largely in Portsmouth. That lasted until 1986, by which time she was in poor condition. She was sensitively restored in Hartlepool between 1990 and 2001in a project that gained widespread acclaim. Today, HMS Trincomalee is afloat in the Graving Dock as the central attraction of Hartlepool’s Maritime Experience and is open to the public throughout the year.

UKHO In the year under review the UKHO led by RearAdmiral Nick Lambert, Younger Brother, UK National Hydrographer, was once again successful in delivering another of its internationally accredited marine cartography courses to six overseas hydrographic officers. In December delegates from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Mexico, Oman, Pakistan and Philippines completed the 15 week marine cartography course, delivered in support of the Japan Capacity Building Project and funded by the

HMS Trincomalee In the Summer of 2011 news was received that the Society for Nautical Research had presented its Victory Medal to Captain David Smith, President of the HMS Trincomalee Trust, and Elder Brother, in recognition of his exceptional contribution to the restoration and conservation of HMS Trincomalee. In the words of the Society’s, citation, “…Without The preserved warship Trincomalee at Hartlepool.

Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) has been in existence in various forms since 1948, as a radar and voice communications system. A series of accidents around the world caused authorities to look at VTS as a means to monitor traffic. Despite scepticism in several quarters, interest in VTS grew and the responsibility to establish and operate these services often fell to lighthouse authorities. In 1956 the then Deputy Master Sir Gerald Curteis and a founder member of IALA, was instrumental in drafting a constitution that was to create the future of IALA itself.

UKHO Training team, National Hydrographer Rear Admiral Nick Lambert and students.

NIPPON Foundation. This course provides delegates with the skills and knowledge to produce and maintain navigational charts (paper and digital) during an intense and highly practical programme and is the third course of a five year commitment by the NIPPON Foundation. These efforts support the aims of the International Hydrographic Bureau and the Foundation, in developing human resources and hydrographic organisational capacity through training and development.

Captain Terry Hughes, Younger Brother, reflects, “Over the ensuing years, IALA followed the developments of VTS and, recognising that these were unco-ordinated and differed from country to country, considered that there needed to be a forum at which similar problems could be discussed and experiences could be shared. Consequently, in 1981, IALA established a VTS Committee to undertake these tasks. Since then this Committee has grown steadily and has developed into the foremost forum on Vessel Traffic Services in the world. IALA recognises that the trends in maritime operations towards enhanced safety, security, efficiency, accountability and environmental responsibility, together with anticipated technical advances, will result in significant future change. The number of countries developing VTS is expanding rapidly and IALA is being asked more and more for assistance with their training needs. This is where IALA’s newly formed World-Wide Academy can play an important role.” Terry Hughes joined a special ad hoc group (attached to the VTS Committee) after the 8th VTS symposium in Rotterdam in 1996 with the task to draw up Recommendation V103 on VTS training and standards. He became Chairman of the Personnel and Training Working Group, which succeeded the ad hoc group, in 2002. 21

THE YEAR IN PICTURES – 2012

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

CLOCKWISE FROM TOP LEFT: TRWYN DU lighthouse imaged from 2016 separate ten second exposures taken over six hours during the night and then post-processed to create the single composited image. Photograph and ©2012 by Kevin Lewis. LONGSHIPS lighthouse by Shaun Mellet, the winning entrant in this year’s Photographic competition, ©2012. LONGSTONE lighthouse, or Outer Farne as it was first called, is situated on Longstone Rock, one of the Outer Staple Islands. PORTLAND BILL lighthouse guides vessels heading for Portland and Weymouth through hazardous waters as well as acting as a waymark for ships navigating the English Channel. CASQUETS lighthouse: The recent operation during which a significant quantity of equipment was landed from THV Galatea in preparation for a major modernisation at the lighthouse. NEEDLES Lighthouse, Isle of Wight with THV Galatea in the foreground. Photograph and ©2012 by Michael Angus.

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BY

Jon Price LEGAL & RISK MANAGER; YOUNGER BROTHER

Wreck Removal Convention Act

Early in the current Parliamentary Session, Dr Thérèse Coffey, the Member of Parliament for Suffolk Coastal, presented a Private Member’s Bill in the House of Commons to enable the UK to ratify and implement in UK domestic law the Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks. The Bill passed its various stages in the House of Commons by March 2011 and then entered the House of Lords. With support for the Bill from Peers within the Fraternity and others, the Bill passed through the Lords and received Royal Assent on 12th July 2011. The Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks or Wreck Removal Convention (WRC) was adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in May 2007 at the Nairobi Diplomatic Conference. The Convention provides a uniform legal basis for States Parties to locate, mark and remove, or have removed, a wreck which is a In January 2007 the wreck of MSC Napoli was marked by East, South and West Cardinal buoys. They remained in position until August 2009.

hazard to navigation or to the marine environment. The Convention also contains provisions in respect of the recovery, from the registered owner of the vessel, of costs associated with marking or removing it. Vessels of 300 gross tonnage and above are required to maintain insurance or other financial security to meet this potential liability. The WRC empowers States to deal with wrecks in an area from their territorial sea up to 200 miles out to sea. They also have the option of applying the Convention to their territorial waters, something the UK Government has indicated that it wishes to do. Trinity House has had since the 19th century a statutory responsibility for locating and marking and raising, removing or destroying wrecks, which are a danger to navigation in England or Wales or the adjacent seas and islands but outside the jurisdiction of a harbour or conservancy authority. Its current powers are set out in the Merchant Shipping Act 1995 and they will remain in place. As far as Trinity House is concerned, the WRC Act, once in force, is seen as providing a mechanism whereby Trinity House can, through the UK Secretary

of State’s Representative (SOSREP), locate, mark and remove wrecks which are a danger to navigation, beyond the territorial sea, clarifying an area of legislation, where there has been previously uncertainty in terms of the meaning of the term ‘adjacent seas or islands’. The Bill is also seen as facilitating the recovery of costs, as it provides for any claim for costs arising under the Convention to be brought directly against the insurer or other person providing financial security for the registered owner's liability. It therefore significantly reduces the exposure of the General Lighthouse Fund in terms of the cost of dealing with wrecks and is welcomed. The Convention will come into force 12 months following the date on which 10 States have either signed it without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, or have deposited instruments of ratification with IMO. At the time of writing four States have ratified it. The Convention and the Act look likely to come into force in 2013 / 2014. Trinity House and the other GLAs are currently developing with the Department for Transport a Memorandum of Understanding setting out the respective responsibilities of the GLAs and SOSREP under the legislation.

Parliamentary Matters 24

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Draft Marine Navigation Bill

As Brethren will recall, Trinity House and the other GLAs sought to promote a number of changes to their legislative powers in 2008 as set out in the draft Marine Navigation Bill, which was issued for consultation during the middle part of that year. The GLA provisions in the draft Bill were broadly supported by the House of Commons Transport Select Committee. However, the Bill failed to secure Parliamentary time before the last General Election. A number of routes are currently being examined as to how the provisions in respect of GLA pensions and broadening the GLAs’ powers to undertake commercial work might be taken forward. In terms of pensions, the key provisions are enabling the GLAs to establish a separately funded

pension scheme; to make contributions to third party pension schemes; and for the pension contributions from Lighthouse Service staff to be ring fenced within the General Lighthouse Fund. As far as commercial powers are concerned, the key changes sought are the ability to buy in assets for such work and to provide consultancy services. Such additional powers would allow the GLAs to use their extensive experience in the field of aids to navigation provision for the benefit of the maritime

community. At the same time it would allow the GLAs to generate further additional income for the General Lighthouse Fund, thereby reducing the amount required in Light Dues to fund their statutory work for the benefit of the ship owner.

Below right: Wreck buoys awaiting loading in a Trinity House vessel at Harwich Depot.'

Above: Trinity House Vessels Galatea and Alert. Each is equipped for wreck location and marking, amongst other projects, and carry multibeam and side scan hydrographic survey equipment.

25

BY

Steve Keddie,

TRINITY HOUSE ENGINEERING AND PROJECT DELIVERY DEPARTMENT.

Casquets modification A two year project run by this Department based in Harwich is currently underway with the multiple objectives of upgrading the current equipment, reducing the amount of fossil fuel consumed and reducing the number of planned maintenance visits at Casquets lighthouse located 11.3 km west of Alderney. Reducing Casquets’ environmental impact

The three hundred year old (1724) lighthouse was automated in 1990 and its navigation equipment is currently powered by continuously running diesel alternators which use annually approximately £7000 of fuel. Due to the recent advancements in renewable technologies the station can now be powered purely by solar panels and wind turbine power reducing the requirement for fuel on station to no more than that required for cooking and heating when the station is manned during the planned annual maintenance visit.

A primary aim of the project was to ensure that the Casquets is as self-sufficient as possible. Design allows a minimum heat input to ensure that buildings are conditioned and do not deteriorate due to temperature extremes and damp. Heat source for the building conditioning will be provided by combination of the solar thermal panels mounted to the roof and a new wind turbine unit. A new water capture and treatment facility will eliminate the need for water to be flown in. Modernising the equipment

Current equipment on station was installed during

Right: Casquets accommodation block new roof being completed.

New lantern roof design.

automation in 1990 and is now becoming obsolete and expensive to maintain. This programme will replace obsolete and unreliable equipment and thus ensure reliable systems are in place to reduce the risk of station failure in order to maintain Casquets as a major aid. In line with navigational requirements the range of the station light will be reduced from 24 nautical miles to 18. This will be achieved using new technology LED lanterns for both the main and standby light. The station will also be changed from 24 hour operation to night time only. This technology benefits from lower power requirements and significantly higher mean time between failures greatly reducing the planned maintenance visits each year. Restoring safe and cost effective access

As a manned station the boat landings, which are made from the island’s bedrock and concrete, were constantly maintained by the keepers to give safe access. However, now the station is attended infrequently these landings are wave-washed and a build-up of super-slippery algae has made their use very dangerous. As a result all visits to Casquets are by the Trinity House helicopter making routine maintenance a costly exercise. Due to the ever present fog around the islands there is constant risk of personnel becoming trapped on station. Modernisation will provide a new landing platform made from stainless steel and extra-grippy waffle board providing access to the island by boat during most states of the tide.

Above: Delivery by Trinity House helicopter.

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Works status

Following a detailed six month scoping and design phase, installation work commenced on Casquets during May 2011. A major logistical task was embarked upon to procure and deliver all the parts required by the installation team for the period spanning May to September. Parts were delivered to the Casquets area by THV Galatea and transported the short distance to Casquets rock by helicopter. The helicopter flew in excess of 110 underslung loads. The project spans two years of installation. Year 1 focuses mainly on the civil elements of the project and particularly on the installation of the new landing platform at the north end of the rock. Following professional analysis of the most suitable landing stage sites, the site identified was chosen. At high water the whole area is submerged. This, as well as the make-up of the rock, posed some difficult design questions. Design was carried out in-house by members of the Project Delivery Department and installed during June/July 2011 by a team from the Field Operations Department. Work to install the landing stage was made particularly difficult by the tide dependent access to the landing site and by difficulty in cutting a level mounting for the designed steelwork out of the island’s granite. This landing stage now allows for boat access to the island. Further steelwork has been installed to the station courtyard to provide a preparatory framework for the solar panels that will be mounted as part of Year 2 installation phases over 2012/2013. Work has also commenced this year to ensure that buildings are fully insulated and watertight. A new roof has been installed and with its guttering forms a rain water harvest system. Work has started in preparing the old engineers’ quarters to house a rain water treatment plant so that water captured from the roof and processed will provide drinking water during site visits thus eliminating the need to air-lift water to site.

installation phases and two aid to navigation commissioning phases. The existing badly corroded lantern roof ventilator will be replaced by a new lantern roof shown in the computerised example here. This will provide a mounting platform and maintenance access for the new standby lantern and radar beacon. Design will be fabricated in house and installation at Casquets was due during March 2012. Following this a rope access team will be employed to install a lightning protection network to site to protect the new electrical systems from lightning strike damage. Work then continues inside the buildings to insulate them and install a heating system to ensure the property is conditioned whilst staff are not on site and to provide heating and hot water for staff during the maintenance visit. Work will continue outside the buildings to install solar panels and a wind turbine during June, July and August. These will supply the future power generation for the site eliminating the need to mobilise the helicopter for regular fuel delivery. Power generated will be stored in new type gel batteries which reduce the need for maintenance visits. Electrical systems will then be installed through August and September, firstly fitting the power distribution systems and then the new Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) system. This new to service PLC offers considerable benefits over previously used site control and monitoring

systems. The PLC will reduce the amount of cubicles, cables and a cable tray required to be installed and significantly reduces the risk of station failure through built in layers of redundancy. The PLC system also has the capability for remote access maintenance reducing all future maintenance commitment on site. Installation of the new LED navigation lights and electrical systems will continue during September and October. System Integration for the station aids to navigation, communications and telemetry are being simplified from previous systems by the use of the new PLC system. During November and December the site will be commissioned concluding just before Christmas 2012. Throughout all phases of the project careful planning has been required to co-ordinate the delivery of parts to this logistically challenging location. Careful consideration has had to be given to the planning of everything from the storage of materials on site to the management of waste, to the provision of clean living space for the installation team. Special consideration has been given to the design of parts for Casquets to ensure that they are safe to use, simple to install, easy to maintain and will be robust enough to survive in the location. The Casquets project continues to run to plan due to the hard work of everyone involved and it has required close teamwork across multiple departments in Trinity House.

Look ahead

Installation work for Year 1 was completed in September 2011. Since then the design for Year 2 has been continuing and nears completion. The Year 2 installation plan has been divided into nine

Before, the yellow rectangle marks the Casquets proposed landing site.

After, the Casquets newly installed boat landing platform.

27

BY

Warren Clarke

LIGHTHOUSE MANAGER, TRINITY HOUSE HARWICH.

S

t Anthony lighthouse is one of our most treasured sites, used in the title sequence of the 1980’s TV show Fraggle Rock. It is instantly recognisable. The station is also the location of one of our Rural Retreat Cottages; Sally Port is one of the crown jewels in the Trinity House commercial estate, having almost 100% year round occupancy. As such it is always with reluctance that the site is closed for maintenance and the length of these closures is kept to a minimum. Painting Schedule

For many years Trinity House has followed a cyclical painting protocol. Under this regime there were two painting schedules carried out over a six year period. Schedule 1 painting consists of total painting of the external lighthouse, this includes all structures including

woodwork and fences; boundary walls are only painted where they are deemed to be part of the station daymark. Schedule 2 painting is generally a touch up of all windows and doors as the gloss paint used has a reduced lifecycle compared with the paints used on masonry and steel.

As masonry paint technology has advanced the cyclical protocol has proven not to be cost effective and we have now embarked upon a condition based approach with a view to extend the lighthouse paint life to ten years or more. To facilitate this all stations have an annual inspection carried out by either the Visiting Committee or the Field Operations Senior Civil Technician. During these inspections the quality of the paintwork is reviewed and a decision is made on the projected life of the paint coating. This has allowed the Schedule 1 painting frequency to be extended to ten years in some instances. Unfortunately gloss paint technology has not moved forward at the same pace and Schedule 2 painting is generally carried out at the three year point.

The painting of St Anthony Lighthouse

Above: Aerial view of Saint Anthony Lighthouse which is situated at the eastern entrance to Falmouth Harbour thus guiding vessels clear of the Manacles rocks, south of the harbour entrance. Right: Repainting the Trinity House crest.

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

It was following these guidelines that St Anthony was deemed to be now due for a full Schedule 1 paint. As the cottage was also to be closed we took the opportunity to carry out some running repairs at the same time. Site Mobilisation: The Challenge

Following the tender process Penzance-based Jopson Paint contractors were appointed to carry out the planned painting at St Anthony. Jopson’s have many years’ experience painting Trinity House structures and were well suited to this project. Because of the cottage availability the timeline for the works was limited from 2nd to 29th July inclusive. One of the main maintenance issues with St Anthony is the chimneys. At most stations we are able to use suspended platforms to carry out the painting. However, due to the dimensions and location of the chimneys at St Anthony a full scaffold is required. This is not usually a problem. Here due to the remote location of the lighthouse, the nearest access road being over 400 metres away with a vertical drop of over 50 metres, the scaffold had to be moved to site manually, a considerable task taking into consideration the 35 tons of scaffold required for the work. Because of the location and amount of equipment Above: 35 tons of scaffold were required for the repainting. Above: Work commenced on 2nd July and was completed by 6th July. involved, specific manual handling risk assessments were undertaken by the specialist contractor. Work House Principal Civil Engineer, it was decided to and safety were to Trinity House standards daily commenced on 2nd July and the tower was complete proceed with the two pack system on all metal work reports were forwarded to Trinity House and regular by 6th July. As can be seen in the image, the whole but to change to the water based product Murfill for unplanned visits were made to site by the coast tower was sheeted out to ensure any paint waste all masonry areas. The Murfill product is a single pack Technical Manager and the Senior Civil Technician. was captured and did not prove an environmental coating thus not requiring an additional hardener. Steve Durham, Safety Manager, also took the nuisance. To assist with this work the scaffolders used Being water-based it is more environmentally friendly opportunity to visit the site finding all in good order. an adapted dumper truck and trailer to carry the and it also has elastomeric properties allowing up to scaffold where practicable. This clearly reduced the 400% elasticity. This last area is a great benefit due Conclusion manual handling issues on site and allowed the work to the location of many of our stations and the great Although there were unseen issues with the previous to be completed in a timely fashion. changes in weather and heat to which the structures paint coating delaminating, Jopson Contractors were able to provide additional staff to ensure that the are subjected. Painting General painting of the station went extremely strict timeline for the work was not exceeded without The painting commenced and a major problem was well. There were some five days lost to rain but the compromising the quality of work. A thorough site soon unearthed. A key part of painting is the preparation. contractor was able to use this time on preparation quality inspection was carried out by Malcolm Johns, This includes cleaning down the walls to remove and some additional work identified within Sally Technical Manager, at which point the project was excess dirt, growth, loose paint and form a key for the Port cottage. To ensure painting quality and health completed on time and to the revised budget. new paint. Whilst this work was being undertaken large areas of paint were found to delaminate from the The Coming Year walls. This was a significant issue as the new coating With the painting schedule for 2011 completed, it now falls upon us to deliver the 2012 schedule. Many will require a sound base on which to paint. stations have been visited to ensure we are painting for good reason. Key stakeholders including the As the previous paint coating had clearly not bonded Annual Visiting Committee of Inspection, Commercial and the Principal Engineer (Civil), have been with the granite, we took the opportunity to review consulted to make sure we are considering the best paint product for particular stations. This ensures the paint product we planned to use on the buildings. longevity, and that other station activities are not disrupted, for example visitor centres and cottages and We had previously used a tried and tested two pack that the correct station standards are maintained in accordance with the Trinity House Asset Plans. This paint system comprising the actual paint covering and year we are intending to paint Mumbles, Nash Point, St Bees Head, Smalls, Sark, Start Point, Dungeness, a hardener product that requires mixing prior to Longstone and Royal Sovereign; this plan may change dependent upon the quotes received. application. Following consultation with the Trinity 29

BY Paul Williams, George

Shaw, Nick Ward, Chris Hargreaves, Martin Bransby

GENERAL LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITIES OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND.

The GLAs’ Maritime eLoran e-Navigation and eLoran

The foundations of the IMO’s e-Navigation concept include global communications, electronic navigation charts and electronic positioning, navigation and timing (PNT). The primary source of PNT for e-Navigation is any one, or more, of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Currently, GNSS includes GPS (US) and GLONASS (Russia) and in the future COMPASS (China) and GALILEO (Europe). All of these systems have one issue in common: low signal power (approximately 0.0000000000000001 Watt) at the earth’s surface making them vulnerable to intentional and unintentional interference1. The IMO says that e-Navigation systems should be resilient. It goes on to say that requirements for redundancy, particularly in relation to position fixing systems, should be considered. In 2010, the GLAs through their ‘Research and Radionavigation Directorate’ (R&RNAV) undertook a rigorous Business Case analysis for the UK’s Department for Transport (DfT). It showed that eLoran would allow the GLAs to achieve the most

cost-effective balance of radionavigation and visual aids to provide resilient PNT, thus enabling the full benefits of e-Navigation in the 2018 to 2020 timeframe2. Implementing eLoran means that some lights and other physical aids to navigation can be removed. Lights, however, remain a crucial part of e-Navigation for navigation and situational awareness close to danger. Since 2007 the GLAs have led the introduction of eLoran in Europe, deployed a new eLoran transmitter station at Anthorn in Cumbria; conducted successful GPS jamming and eLoran trials; and worked with European colleagues to promote eLoran’s maritime and non-maritime benefits. So what is maritime eLoran?

The core signal-in-space is a higher specification version of the old Loran-C signal 3. eLoran is an all-inview system and position is determined by modern eLoran receivers in a manner similar to that of a GPS receiver, measuring signal propagation times from all available transmitters and combining them in a positioning solution; eLoran is NOT a hyperbolic system.

Figure 1 – ASFs and differentialLoran for port approach operations.

A number of additional components are required:

1. Sets of Additional Secondary Factors (ASF) to correct for propagation delay over land 2. A Differential-Loran service sending real-time propagation corrections to the mariner 3. A Loran Data Channel to communicate these corrections, and integrity information, to the mariner. Additional Secondary Factors

eLoran receivers compute their position in two stages. First they assume that the earth’s surface is covered entirely in sea-water and they employ a very accurate sea-water radio propagation delay model. In the second stage, the ‘additional’ delays due to propagation over land from each eLoran transmitter are taken into account. These are called ASFs and they are supplied to users as databases built into receivers. R&RNAV has been developing best practice methods for measuring and processing ASFs. It has developed software that is capable of running on an ASF measurement system, shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3. The GLAs can measure, process and validate ASFs and convert them into a form suitable for publication. Figure 4 shows an ASF database for the UK’s Anthorn transmitter covering the Harwich and Felixstowe approach channel. A database would be provided for each eLoran tranmitter serving an area. Differential Loran

Loran Station

DLoran Ref Station

Figure 2 – An ASF measurement system.

ASF Map

ASFs change, due to rain soaking into the earth or freeze-thaw paths. Over a year, actual ASFs change in a cyclic manner compared to what is fixed and stored within a mariner’s receiver and this affects positioning accuracy. We need to monitor these temporal variations and inform the mariner’s receiver. This is done using Differential-Loran corrections, measured at reference stations local to the point of use of the service. The word ‘station’ conjures up images of buildings, transmitter masts and operational personnel on-station to service it. However, a DifferentialLoran reference station is nothing more than a small box connected to the Internet and a receive antenna on a roof as in Figure 5. Loran Data Channel

The differential-Loran correction data are transmitted to the mariner using the Loran signal itself – the Loran Data Channel (LDC). In Europe this is Eurofix4 – a low bandwidth (~ 30 bps) data communications system based on the modulation of some of the 30

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Top left, figure 3 – The GLAs’ ASF measurement, processing and validation software. Lower left, figure 4 – Example ASF map for Anthorn covering the Harwich and Felixstowe Harbour Approach Channel Above, figure 5 – The GLAs’ prototype differential-Loran reference station installed in Harwich.

pulses transmitted from an eLoran station. Eurofix is currently transmitted on several eLoran transmitters in Europe. Higher bandwidth (1500 bps+) methods are being developed with new technology eLoran transmitters5.

the Harwich/Felixstowe approach channel using eLoran with positioning accuracy of about 10 m (95%). The GLAs are approaching future eLoran service provision in two stages:

• An Initial Operational Capability (IOC) level The GLAs’ eLoran roadmap

Prototype eLoran operation continues routinely in the UK. The transmitter at Anthorn consistently demonstrates 100% monthly availability. There has been a Differential-Loran reference station operating in Harwich since 2008 and it is currently possible to navigate

service will be installed by mid-2013 covering the seven busiest ports on the east coast of the UK: Aberdeen, Grangemouth, Middlesbrough, Immingham, Tilbury, Dover and an upgraded system at Harwich/Felixstowe. See Figure 6. • A Full Operational Capability (FOC) level service,

covering all major ports in the UK and Ireland and various Traffic Separation Schemes, will be installed by 2018. The transmitter at Anthorn is very reliable; however, it will be around 24 years old by the time of FOC in 2018. It will need to be upgraded with new time and frequency equipment, or replaced. The GLAs also need to implement the best option for extending coverage to the west of the British Isles and eLoran coverage prediction techniques, Figure 7, developed by R&RNAV are allowing them to investigate various options. 31

THE GLAs’ MARITIME eLORAN – CONTINUED FROM PAGE 31.

Coverage prediction like this, together with eLoran off-air measurements, will also allow the GLAs to optimise differential-Loran reference station roll-out determining the number of reference stations needed and the best locations to put them.

Figure 6 – Ports for GLA Initial Operational Capability (IOC) level eLoran.

Strategic View

As part of e-Navigation, the GLAs continue to press the need for an independent, dissimilar backup to GNSS. The GLAs continue to participate in panEuropean Loran in the belief that eLoran, or a derivative, provides a reliable, accurate, secure, and low cost enhancement of GNSS derived PNT for multi-modal uses and applications as a key building block of e-Navigation. The GLAs’ eLoran strategy is to:

• Extend current UK trials to demonstrate performance and raise awareness;

• Consider opportunities for extension of the GLA eLoran trial;

• Consolidate cross-sector support in the UK and beyond – both cross-government and different modes (e.g. road navigation); • Continue building a European consensus in favour of eLoran; preparation and adoption of a European Radio Navigation Plan is of crucial importance; • Facilitate international recognition of eLoran as the preferred complement to GNSS; • Prepare for the introduction of eLoran services in 2013; • Plan for fully operational service by 2018.

Existing European Stations

For more information and document downloads please visit R&RNAV’s website at www.gla-rrnav.org

References 1. The Potential Effects of GPS Jamming on Marine Navigation, A. Grant, P. Williams and S. Basker, in Proceedings of the Royal Institute of Navigation NAV10 Conference and Exhibition, 2010. 2. A summary of the Business Case is available for download at www.glarrnav.org/publications/index.html A full version is available upon request. 3. Specification of the Transmitted Loran-C Signal, United States Coast Guard, COMDTINST M16562.4A, MAY 18 1994 4. Technical Characteristics Of Methods Of Data Transmission And Interference Protection For Radionavigation Services In The Frequency Bands Between 70 And 130 kHz, Recommendation 589-2, International Telecommunications Union. 5. Low Frequency (LF) Solutions for Alternative Positioning, Navigation, Timing, and Data (APNT&D) and Associated Receiver Technology, Arthur Helwig, Gerard Offermans, Chris Stout, Charles Schue – UrsaNav, Inc., Brian Walker, Tim Hardy, Scott Martin, Kirk Zwicker – Nautel, Inc. Figure 7 – GLA eLoran coverage prediction illustrating a gap in the west. 32

BY

GEORGE SHAW MA MRAeS CEng

GENERAL LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITIES RESEARCH & RADIO NAVIGATION DIRECTORATE.

SPACE WEATHER T

he unpredictable effects of space weather events on GNSS availability pose a distinct threat to maritime navigation. Sun spots and solar flares are randomly triggered and can bombard the earth with intense periods of electromagnetic radiation (e.g. x-rays). Huge coronal mass ejections can fire high-speed protons at the earth. Such effects cause ionospheric scintillation and propagation delays that can significantly degrade the GNSS signals as they are transmitted from satellites to the earth’s surface. Hence, space weather has the potential to affect GNSS availability, either by preventing signal reception or by affecting the performance of the satellites themselves. Solar activity is cyclical, peaking at a maximum approximately every eleven years, with the next solar maximum predicted to occur during 2013. The effects on GNSS performance are most severe at equatorial, auroral and polar latitudes, but even at the mid-latitude of the UK rangeequivalent GNSS signal delays of typically around two metres to 15 metres can occur without warning. The intensities of solar maxima vary considerably; over many cycles, solar ‘superstorms’ can occur such as the ‘Carrington Event’ of 1859 (which induced huge currents in telegraph systems causing fires) that would have very severe consequences for GNSS performance. Solar events capable of disrupting power transmissions have been recorded in 1972, 1989 (nine hour power outage in Canada) and 2003. GNSS operation is very recent on a solar timescale so experience is limited.

Risk of disruption Maritime navigation systems and services that rely on GNSS are at greatest risk of disruption from the ionosphere during the period from 2011 to 2015. The effects vary with latitude, season and time of day (the hours soon after sunset being most affected). At worst, the GNSS receiver may not be able to track the signals from one or more satellites and its navigation data may be intermittently unavailable over a period of several days. Such interrupts are rare in the seas around the UK, but there is the possibility of hazardously misleading information being produced by the ship’s navigation system. The GLAs provide beacon differential GPS (DGPS) as an aids to navigation (AtoN) service, to provide GPS augmentation for littoral navigation and harbour approach. During quiescent periods of solar activity, DGPS corrections compensate for the effects of the ionosphere such that the residual errors do not pose a problem to maritime navigation performance. However, at the peak of the solar cycle, with high levels of sunspot activity, the differential corrections may be less effective and the increase in position errors may introduce an integrity risk to maritime navigation. Even during a relatively quiet solar maximum, the occurrence of sun spots could give rise to significant effects for discrete events.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Need for mitigation The threat of space weather for maritime navigation highlights the need for mitigation of these effects, internally within the GNSS receiver (e.g. by enhancement of ionospheric models or novel algorithms empirically based on field measurements) and externally using space weather monitoring, GNSS performance predictions and timely notices to mariners. Achieving reliable predictions of ionospheric effects over sufficiently long periods remains a tough challenge even for today’s state-of-theart technology of monitoring and forecasting. The reliance on GNSS throughout ship and shore systems will grow with the advent of e-Navigation, integrating GNSS information across applications. Global maritime activity is increasing, not least in regions (such as polar) where ionospheric scintillation effects are greatest. Global warming is predicted to leave the Arctic ice-free in the summer months by 2030, opening a commercially attractive sea route where GNSS has increased vulnerability. Maintaining high global GNSS availability and safeguarding accuracy and integrity performance for global maritime operations will be challenging during the solar maxima of the 21st century.

Upper and lower left: Ionospheric scintillation and delay. Images courtesy; The University of Bath. 33

THE GENERAL LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITIES’ MARINE AIDS TO NAVIGATION STRATEGY.

2025 and beyond T

hrough the publication of this document the GLAs have committed to continue to provide a service that is robust, efficient and economic with the appropriate mix of physical and electronic aids to navigation. This document, launched on 18th July 2011 clearly outlines how Trinity House, the Northern Lighthouse Board and the Commissioners of Irish Lights will fulfil their shared mission of “delivering a reliable, efficient and cost effective aids to navigation service for the benefit and safety of all mariners.” Since the publication of the GLAs’ strategy document in 2004, the global maritime risk to life, property and the marine environment has increased. The GLAs’ core aim is to ensure safety of navigation by continuing to provide a balanced mix of physical and radio aids to navigation. Technology has improved the level of service we can provide. For example, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) provides a valuable tool to assess future navigation needs around our coasts. Improved light emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar panels, coupled with longer life batteries, have also allowed significant improvements. When delivered, this strategy will continue to mitigate risk; it will provide for safety of navigation, and the protection of

life, property and the vulnerable marine environment. In summary the GLAs’ marine aids to navigation strategy to 2025 is to: • continue to provide an appropriate mix of aids to navigation for general navigation; • continue to provide a timely and effective response to wrecks and aids to navigation failures; • continue to undertake superintendence and management of all aids to navigation in accordance with international standards, recommendations and guidelines; • introduce e-Navigation aids to navigation components and services in the UK and Ireland; • work with users, partners and stakeholders nationally and internationally, to promote the safety of marine navigation based on harmonised international standards, recommendations and guidelines;

Photo: Patricia & Angus Macdonald.

Photo: Northern Lighthouse Board.

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• embrace relevant technologies as they evolve; and to... • improve reliability, efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the GLAs’ service while ensuring the safety of navigation. In the early pages of the strategy document the General Lighthouse Authorities are introduced, their statutory framework outlined and it is emphasised that the United Kingdom and Ireland are signatories to the IMO Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. There is a word on funding and then an introduction to the activities of IALA which underscores the principle that the mariner receives the same ‘signal’ from aids to navigation wherever he goes in the world. User Involvement

On the subject of user involvement it is explained that users of the GLAs’ aids to navigation estate and services range from navigators of the largest and fastest cargo and passenger vessels through the complete spectrum of craft and mariners, to the most infrequent leisure and fishing user. Furthermore, it is explained that the GLAs are committed to consultation with the user when setting policy or regarding aids to navigation provision. This is conducted through representative bodies of professional mariners and leisure users and each GLA has its own regional group which it consults on an ad hoc basis throughout the year as matters arise and meets formally annually. An overarching Joint Users’ Consultative Group meets once each year as a combined tripartite GLA event.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

On the subject of the GLAs’ coastal environment this is already complex: the Dover Strait is the busiest and potentially one of the most dangerous pinch-points in the world; there are strong tidal currents in the Pentland Firth and large tidal ranges in the Bristol Channel; and there are around 255 offshore oil and gas platforms. New plans for up to 7000 offshore wind turbines and other tidal or wave energy installations, as well as marine conservation areas around our coasts, will add further complexity to our already challenging coastal waters. These many factors reduce the sea area available to shipping and increase the pressure on mariners. Their task becomes more complex and their room for manoeuvre ever more constrained as the number of traffic pinch-points increase, notably on the approach to major ports. A long-term trend is generally towards larger ships with an overwhelming over-reliance on GPS in the coastal voyage phase. At the same time, crew sizes have reduced and there is a severe shortage of seafarers, superintendents, surveyors and pilots. The Nautical Institute has stated that 80% of accidents at sea are caused by human error, while 2008 evidence from one of the leading marine insurers directly links the rise in the number of accidents at sea with human and navigational error. e-Navigation – The solution

The IMO’s response is the adoption of e-Navigation, defined as: “The harmonised collection, integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard and ashore by electronic means

Photo: Mull of Galloway Lighthouse, Arnaud Späni.

Maritime risk

to enhance berth to berth navigation and related services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment”. The concept is that all charting, communications and navigation information will be integrated into a coherent presentation on the bridge. It will be data-linked to shore to give a clear and up-to-the-minute presentation of current charts, incidents and shipping. The benefits of e-Navigation in the high-risk areas off the coasts of the UK and Ireland are clear. e-Navigation will bring a fundamental change to the concept of operations used for maritime navigation. GPS is undoubtedly the

primary navigation system at present and will be joined by others such as Glonass, Compass & Galileo. Need for a terrestrial backup

Due to the vulnerabilities of the signal, the need for a terrestrial backup to GNSS is widely accepted in IMO but such a system has not been mandated as yet nor the global or large region coverage defined. However, until the backup is defined there is a clear single point of failure, as e-Navigation would rely almost exclusively on satellite navigation systems for its positioning, navigation and timing inputs. In the e-Navigation environment the sudden reversion to traditional visual and radar navigation methods in congested and confined waters is a genuine concern which may be beyond the experience of future watchkeepers and thus would potentially be unsafe. This is why the GLAs continue to press the need for an independent, dissimilar terrestrial Position, Navigation & Timing (PNT) backup and their choice is for enhanced Loran (eLoran). We continue to participate in a pan-European Loran network on a trial basis in the belief that eLoran or a derivative provides a reliable, accurate, secure and low cost enhancement of GNSS derived PNT for multi modal uses and applications. eLoran, or a GLAs’ equivalent terrestrial backup to GNSS, is a key building block of e-Navigation. To see a copy of the document

Marine Aids to Navigation Strategy 2025 & Beyond; Readers are invited to visit the website: www.trinityhouse.co.uk/pdfs/2025_and_Beyond.pdf

Above: THV Galatea.

Above: THV Alert.

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BY

Captain Roger Barker, DIRECTOR OF NAVIGATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, TRINITY HOUSE, ELDER BROTHER

D

uring 2001 the first of a round of offshore wind farms was announced by the Crown

Estate. This first “Round 1” consisted of 18 individual projects in 13 locations around

the UK coast and all within territorial limits. Of the initial 18 sites proposed several were not taken ahead but ten are now fully commissioned and in operation. These Round 1 sites had strict limits, a maximum of 30 turbines, within a 10km2 maximum area, within territorial limits and with an installed capacity of at least 20MW.

Offshore Wind Farms and the effect on Maritime Safety Above: Wind turbines offshore.

It is unfortunate but in its infancy the renewable Energy Sector was largely unaware of issues that offshore developments would present to the Mariner and, due to “commercial confidentiality”, consultation at the early stages of site selection was limited. The first Round 1 site, at North Hoyle in the Irish Sea, was commissioned in late 2003 with 30 turbines delivering 60 MW of energy to the National Grid. It was during the assessment of this site together with the other Round 1 sites that it was recognised that serious cross stakeholder debate was required to ensure that all issues were carefully considered at the earliest stage of site selection. On 27th January 2005 the first meeting of the Nautical Offshore Renewable Energy Liaison Group (NOREL) was held, chaired at the time by the DTI and with membership from a wide range of stakeholders including DfT, Crown Estate, MCA, GLAs, RYA, ports and developers with other parties being identified at the first meeting. The NOREL group still meets at least twice annually and continues to provide valuable advice to both the regulators and developers on issues of a generic nature surrounding the offshore renewable energy industry. Together with what some may term as expected dangers and effects on navigation, including interruption of rights of passage and the physical danger presented by the turbine towers, other more unexpected issues arose quite quickly such as the sediment transfer caused by the towers, affects on marine radar displays and conflict between marine and aviation lighting requirements. Deep scouring around turbines, not surprising to

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those of us who played on the beach as youngsters, and were intrigued by how the sand changes when you place an object in the path of water flow, has caused some concern to developers who are now using mesh mattresses in some locations to alleviate the scouring. A second round of larger developments, Round 2, was announced in 2004. 15 sites were proposed to deliver a total capacity of 7319 MW when completed with the largest of the sites at London Array in the Thames estuary having over 300 turbines. Of these Round 2 sites two are completed, at Gunfleet Sands (II) and Thanet, off the Kent coast, where 100 turbines are installed. Actual turbine tower numbers are, often, not announced until the latest stages of the application and consent process because as technology advances the use of very large turbines evolves requiring fewer towers to provide agreed deliverable energy requirements. This, as with many factors, seriously effects the deliberations of those assessing consequences of the sites. It is sometimes not immediately apparent to the engineers developing plans that the charted red lines depicting site boundaries will not be seen by the mariner through his binoculars but the obstruction presented by a turbine tower may indeed be a problem. Actual turbine layout must be carefully assessed in consideration of maritime safety. The role of the GLA within the offshore renewables sector is sometimes questioned. As with any danger presented to the mariner, be it a new wreck, changing bathymetry or indeed a new offshore

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Above: Chart showing AIS Traffic, approaches to the Thames Estuary.

development, the risk must be assessed to ensure that appropriate risk mitigation measures including the use of aids to navigation are included in the consent requirements. Actual marking of the turbine towers is in line with the International Association of Marine Aids to Navigation and Lighthouse Authorities (IALA) Recommendation O-139, which was developed by a committee of international stakeholders. To additionally mitigate risk, in many circumstances and locations, additional floating marks are required to further reduce the risk to “As Low as Reasonably Practicable” (ALARP). The costs incurred for both the marking on the turbine towers and any additional marks that may be required are the responsibility of the developer with no call on the General Lighthouse Fund (GLF). In close assessment of proposed developments, together with other marine colleagues including the MCA, it is sometimes the case that proposed site location and boundaries form what is assessed as an unacceptable risk that cannot be mitigated by aids to navigation alone and additional measures may be required including relocation of the site and/or consideration of designated vessel traffic routeing. 2008 saw the announcement by the Crown Estate for the leasing of nine zones forming Round 3 of the windfarm program. UK Government targets to achieve 20% of energy requirements from renewable sources by 2020 will require 25GW of deliverable energy from the proposed Round 3 zones, up to an additional 7000 turbine towers. These, huge, Round 3 areas will be made up of

Above: Wind turbines offshore.

several sites within each zone but the overall management of each zone will remain with one consortia. This was seen as an essential element by the GLAs, recognising the difficulty that would be experienced in trying to ensure that several different sites within a zone, managed by different bodies, could lead to an increasing risk to the mariner as the sites move into full operation. The largest of these zones, in the North Sea, will have up to 1800 turbines and the consequential effect on both National and International Marine traffic is of major significance. Finally, a round of extensions to current Round 1 and Round 2 sites has been proposed which in some areas further reduce the available sea-room for the mariner to proceed in safety. Major issues have been the initial inability of developers to communicate with each other to assess the ‘in–combination’ and ‘cumulative effect’ of their respective proposals. Commercial sensitivity continues to be a problem but to counter this, those charged with assessing the

risk have insisted that sites must not be considered in isolation. This problem of course extends to international issues when considering the sites in both Dutch and Belgian waters together with our own, which will have a consequential effect on vessel traffic patterns. As an island nation it is, of course, essential that the mariner is able to proceed to and from our ports in safety. The very large windfarm zones present additional risks when fairways through each zone are laid down to allow for key traffic routes. The width of these fairways must take into account, for example, weather routeing when the required passage will be for prolonged distances. The additional risks presented by these new developments, including restricted sea-room and concentration of vessel traffic flows, new obstructions, complications in port and harbour approaches, confusion caused to inexperienced mariners together with possible deviations from current routes must all be assessed by the GLAs together with all other stakeholders. Round 1 Lease Round 2 Lease Potential Round 3 Development Zone Territorial Sea Limit UK Continental Shelf United Kingdom

Above: Approximate output from each of the Wind farm rounds.

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BY Paul

Ridgway, FRGS , EDITOR, THE IALA BULLETIN.

New Headquarters

In December we were privileged to welcome M. Philippe Paolantoni, directeur des Affaires Maritimes au ministère de l’Écologie, France, to IALA to open our new headquarters in Rue des Gaudines, St Germain-en-Laye. He visited with Emmanuel Lamy, mayor of the town, and other civic dignitaries to perform the inaugural ceremony. Guests were welcomed by members of the IALA Council, led by our President, David Gordon (South Africa), along with members of the international maritime community including the presidents of the International Hydrographic Organization, the Nautical Institute and distinguished visitors. Our new premises enable IALA’s full potential to be realised, particularly with the management of large committee and other meetings, several of which are held throughout the year. These concern e-Navigation (e-NAV); VTS; Aids to Navigation Management (ANM); Engineering, Environment and Preservation (EEP); Pilotage Authorities and Legal Advice as well as the IALA Council and ad hoc gatherings. This move has been reported as a milestone in the life of the Association. Committees constitute an international community of experts in a particular field, who prepare and review relevant IALA publications in accordance with our quadrennial work programme. They also continuously monitor specific developments and enable all members to share expertise and experiences and keep abreast of developments in their field.

For long many members of the Fraternity and of the Trinity House Service have made valuable contributions to the IALA Committees. Captain Roger Barker, Elder Brother, is Chairman of the ANM Committee WG1; Captain Terry Hughes, Younger Brother, chairs a VTS Working Group; Jon Price, Younger Brother, is Vice Chairman of the Legal Advisory Panel and at the Council level the Deputy Master is Treasurer of IALA. The Academy

Rear-Admiral Jean-Charles Leclair, is Dean of the IALA World-Wide Academy which is concerned with training and capacity building throughout the aids to navigation world. Indeed, capacity building is a key element of the IALA mission and is the process by which the Association can assist national authorities in sustainable development and improvement in the provision of marine aids to navigation. In particular, it enables national authorities to meet their states’ respective obligations under the maritime Conventions. The Academy is headed by a Board, a member of which is Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert, former Deputy Master and Treasurer of IALA. Other members of the Board include experts from Denmark and Japan. Stephen Bennett has been appointed Programme Manager. He is a former General Manager of the Arabian Maritime & Navigation Aids Services (AMNAS) in the Sultanate of Oman. Seconded from France is Jacques Manchard, Head of the French Aids to Navigation Service. International activities

At IMO, where we have Consultative Status, we are represented on the MSC, STW, COMSAR and NAV Committees, also at the IMO Council and the Assembly and continue to contribute to the safety of the world’s seafarers through this forum. At the end of 2011 we bade farewell to Admiral Efthimios

The IALA Year MV Crown of Scandinavia steaming Copenhagen-Oslo-Copenhagen from 18th to 20th January this year provided the venue for the EfficienSea Conference with the theme e-Navigation Underway 2012. Jointly organised by EfficienSea (led by the Danish Maritime Authority) and IALA, the gathering was supported by CIRM and the Nautical Institute. The EfficienSea Project is co-funded by the EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. 38

Shipping in the Turkish Straits will be studied by delegates to VTS 2012, the 12th International VTS Symposium organised by the Directorate of Coastal Safety, Turkey,with IALA from 10th to 14th September.

Mitropoulos, who retired as Secretary General. He certainly did everything possible for the organization in achieving its aim of making sure that the world was aware of the need for safer ships. His dedication knew no bounds and we are privileged to have him in the ranks of the Honorary Personal Members of IALA. Regular meetings are held of the Council of the Far East Radionavigation Service (FERNS), the most recent being hosted by the Japan Coast Guard in Tokyo last November and attended by representatives of the four member countries: the People’s Republic of China, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the Russian Federation. On this occasion there were observers from Norway and Great Britain; Secretariat functions are provided by IALA. At FERNS meetings each country represented reports on its Loran-C/Chayka programme regarding operational and technical matters with their co-operating chains along with co-ordination of other radionavigation services. At last year’s meeting presentations were received on the damage caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the resultant tsunami where 156 aids to navigation were damaged. Events…Risk Management…

From 27th November to 1st December thirty-three delegates from eleven countries attended an IALA Training Seminar on Risk Management using PAWSA

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

and IWRAP Mk2 and simulation. Held in Muscat, Oman, a highly successful event took place in an effort to introduce delegates to our Risk Management Toolbox and instruct them in its contents. Captain Roger Barker also attended. He is a member of the IWRAP steering committee, driving the mariner aspects. Seventeen delegates were from the region and able to appreciate the strengths and weaknesses of the constituent parts with considerable emphasis being placed on case studies. This event was the latest in a series in which we have been able to introduce risk management training around the world and it is to be hoped that this principle will continue. A similar event is to be held in Sydney, Australia, from 5th to 9th November this year.

e-Navigation Underway 2012 Conference was jointly organised by EfficienSea and IALA. It was also supported by CIRM and the Nautical Institute. The EfficienSea Project is co-funded by the EU Baltic Sea Region Programme 2007-2013. EfficienSea (www.efficiensea.org) is led by the Danish Maritime Authority. Torsten Kruuse, Younger Brother, reflected, “The Danish Maritime Administration invited me to join the EfficienSea Conference on board Crown of Scandinavia. It was extremely well planned and everything went to schedule. There were many thought-giving presentations on how the sea space will be managed in the future. Unfortunately, the project is finished…” With DMA, IALA will hold a similar event in 2013.

…e-Navigation Underway 2012…

…VTS…

This event with the subtitle From a Bird’s Eye Perspective to Practical Applications was held in MV Crown of Scandinavia steaming Copenhagen-OsloCopenhagen from 18th to 20th January. A total of 240 delegates attended from 17 countries. On the first day where the theme was e-Navigation: The Big Picture a welcome address and introduction was made by Andreas Nordseth, Director General, Danish Maritime Authority (DMA). The scene was set with an overview of Baltic traffic, together with the hazardous nature of cargo before reference was made to the current financial state of the maritime industry. Gary Prosser gave the keynote address: From a Bird’s Eye Perspective to Practical Solutions. Having introduced IALA its involvement in e-Navigation was covered including relationship with IMO. There followed presentations by experts regarding IMO e-Navigation Strategy; e-Navigation; the Manufacturers’ View; the Shipowners’ View; the work of IALA’s e-Navigation Committee; the Nautical Institute; the transition from traditional aids to navigation to e-Navigation; the IMO process and test beds as well as the MonaLisa Project for Dynamic and Proactive Routeing. A selection of twelve Conference Conclusions were agreed. The

Plans are well advanced for the 12th International VTS Symposium organised by IALA with the Directorate of Coastal Safety, Turkey, to be held in Istanbul from 10th to 14th September this year and with the theme Beyond the Limits. Sessions will concern, inter alia, VTS and its role in maritime domain awareness; the role of VTS operations in port/waterways efficiency; VTS beyond territorial seas and in polar regions; VTS and e-Navigation and much more, from information exchange, innovations, recruitment, reduction of risk and mandatory VTS training and accreditation. During the event there will be an exhibition of products and services by our Industrial Members. Further details are to be found on the dedicated website: www.vts2012istanbul.info.

Council which take place to ensure the management of IALA for the following four year span until we gather again in Korea in 2018. In conclusion

As is customary with IALA symposia and workshops there is always a draft, created with delegates’ input, of conclusions for further action. This method can ultimately deliver valuable guidelines and recommendations for the conduct of the many aspects of our members’ services. Typically, the results are freely available to Members and non-Members in the Publications section of the website.

…The Tower of Hercules

Finally, plans are also well advanced for the 18th IALA Conference to be held from 25th to 31st May 2014 at Palexco, A Coruña, Spain. In this city is the Tower of Hercules, a lighthouse built in Roman times, still in commission, and now a UNESCO Heritage Site of much renown. At the Conference we hold the General Assembly and elections for the

An example of shipping under pilotage in Canadian waters. In December the Canadian Marine Pilots’ Association joined IALA as an Associate Member.

Right: The Tower of Hercules, A Coruña, Spain. In this port city will be held the 18th IALA Conference from 25th to 31st May 2014.

39

BY

Captain Roger Barker,

DIRECTOR OF NAVIGATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, TRINITY HOUSE, ELDER BROTHER.

Close links between UKHO and Trinity House

F

or almost as long as man has put to sea he has made use of two things, a chart to plot his path and ensure his safe return home, and lighthouses and seamarks to warn him of danger and assist that safe return to harbour. Not a lot has changed in requirement but the delivery of those requirements has significantly developed and continues to do so on an almost daily basis.

Principles handed down

Mariners’ over confidence

Those of us who now use electronic means to both ascertain and plot our geographic position think that we are rather clever, but we must not forget those early mariners who developed their systems and principles of navigation, and charts, to record their voyages both for their own use and to assist others as they navigated the unknown waters of the world. Some of the data recorded by the very early mariners is still evident in charts and publications that are in use to this date. The relationship between the discovery and marking of both new and existing dangers and the charting of the same is embedded in the close working relationship between the General Lighthouse Authorities and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office.

Furthermore, some of the problems that we are now encountering with regard to general navigation safety are closely linked to the charted information available to, and used by, the bridge watchkeeper. The fact that an electronic chart is in use does not mean that the bathymetric data portrayed is any more or less accurate. We are however finding that the mariner is taking himself closer to danger than was previously expected. Some of this due to the over confidence in the charted information. Use of electronic positioning systems and the portrayal of the vessel on the electronic chart is also leading to over confidence by some mariners, once again taking them closer to danger than in times of traditional methods of navigation.

Main picture: Traffic off Skokholm.

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Passage planning concern

Most passages, particularly in larger commercial vessels, are now planned using electronic systems and charts, with the proposed voyage being laid out with a series of red lines between the identified waypoints. A concern is that a passage planned for a voyage a month, or year, ago may not be appropriate now. It is essential, therefore, that the ongoing changes identified by weekly Notices to Mariners, Temporary and Preliminary notices, and WZ warnings received by Navtex, all promulgated by the UKHO, are both identified and taken account of when planning the current voyage. This is, unfortunately, not always the case, with it being common to taken a voyage plan from vessel to

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Above: ECDIS display showing track and buoyage off Cromer on the East Coast of the UK. Left: Off Lands End; Traffic Separation Scheme, AIS tracks showing vessels passing close inshore.

vessel on a USB memory device or similar electronic storage system. The plan for an 8 metre draft vessel’s last voyage may well be totally inappropriate for the route being planned for an18 metre tanker today. Need for close inshore spatial awareness

In assessing the needs for physical aids to navigation,

therefore, we must take full account of the current practices and information available to the mariner. The requirements for long range aids to navigation is slowly reducing but, conversely, as the mariner takes himself closer to danger, the requirements for close inshore spatial awareness provided by aids to navigation will continue and in some cases

will actually increase. As charting techniques are developed and changed within the IHO, and UKHO, the portrayal of the aids to navigation will also change and the continuing co-operation and excellent working relationship between the respective authorities will be as essential as ever.

41

BY

Commodore David Squire CBE RFA

DIRECTOR, TRINITY HOUSE MNSS AND TRINITY HOUSE PYBS, ELDER BROTHER.

Below: Deck Cadets Kirk Blacker and Samantha Mason at Trinity House as the Deputy Master welcomes HRH The Princess Royal.

Below: Yacht Cadet Chris Averis.

Another great year for

Trinity House Cadets

I

n the last year, we have seen yet another record intake of 30 cadets, including three from the National Maritime College of Ireland, with a good balance between Deck (18) and Engineer (12), and including five females. During the course of the year a record 35 cadets have qualified. It is particularly pleasing to report that two former deck cadets, Charles Darwall and Samantha Mason have taken up Second Officer posts with the Trinity House Support Vessel Service. Last year it was reported that we would start to feel the impact of Government cuts on expenditure, not just in terms of support for maritime training (known as SMarT), but also in subsidies to the colleges, which will bring about a consequential increase in college fees. Review of Government support

Following a review into the requirement for Government support for Merchant Navy training and skills development and how best to spend any continuing Government funding, the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Transport (Mike Penning) has recently concluded that there is a value for money case for the retention of Government funding to support initial training for UK cadets studying at junior officer level with the remainder 42

supporting ratings’ training and ratings to officer conversion training. To this end, he has decided to provide a budget of £12 million a year for SMarT for the remainder of this Parliament. This is good news for the industry and for the future of the Merchant Navy Scholarship Scheme. However, the down side is that reductions in funding to colleges will result in an increase in college fees of between £4,000 and £6,000 per year over a typical three-year cadet training programme.

Our ambassadors

Every Trinity House Cadet is an ambassador for the Merchant Navy Scholarship Scheme and, of course, for the Corporation of Trinity House. This last year we have witnessed some fine examples of our cadets undertaking this ambassadorial role: 15th March:

Deck Cadets Adam Collins and Edward Scott and Engineer Cadets Fraser Scott and Christian Watts attended a royal reception at Buckingham Palace for 160 Seafarers UK supporters, donors, volunteers and beneficiaries, and at which HRH The Prince Philip launched the Seafarers UK President’s Appeal for 2011. 20th June:

Deck Cadets Kirk Blacker, Timothy Churchley and Samantha Mason, and Engineer Cadet Christopher Bannister attended at Trinity House at HRH The Prince Philip’s Maritime Patronages Celebration of His Royal Highness’s 90th Birthday, hosted by The Master, HRH The Princess Royal and attended by HM The Queen. 25th June:

Deck Cadet Gareth Minter attended a special event to mark the IMO Day of the Seafarer, attending a gala reception in London, as one of the new faces of British Shipping.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

12th November:

Deck Cadet Christopher Le Gallais represented the Merchant Navy, together with the veterans and other cadets from Warsash Maritime Academy at the Royal British Legion Festival of Remembrance at the Royal Albert Hall. 4th/5th November:

Deck Cadets Edward Scott, Samantha Mason, Mike Bunton, Philip Jeffers, Jack Daly, Jacob Hodgson, Christopher Le Gallais and Emma McCarthy attended the Nautical Institute’s Command Seminar at Bristol. 13th November:

Deck Cadets Christopher Le Gallais and James Pine represented today’s Merchant Navy, together with other cadets from Warsash Maritime Academy, and marched with the veterans at the Cenotaph in Whitehall.

Above: Engineer Cadets Fraser Scott and Christian Watts with the Deputy Master in conversation with HRH The Prince Philip at the Seafarers UK Reception. Middle left: Trinity House Cadets at the Bristol Command Seminar. Lower left: Learning the ropes in a yacht of the UK Sailing Academy.

All these cadets served as excellent ambassadors for the Trinity House Merchant Navy Scholarship Scheme, and were a credit to themselves and to the Scheme. Since its launch in 1989, the Trinity House Merchant Navy Scholarship Scheme has benefited some 350 young people who have achieved their first professional qualification as deck, engine or electro-technical officers in the Merchant Navy. Today, there is no shortage of candidates seeking bursaries through our Scheme and it is hoped that we will continue to recruit up to 30 cadets a year, despite the financial pressures brought about as a result of increases in college fees. Professional Yachtsman Bursary Scheme

Following the Board’s approval last year to continue the Professional Yachtsman Bursary Scheme (PYBS) under revised terms and conditions we have welcomed five new Yacht Cadets into the Scheme (four at the United Kingdom Sailing Academy and one at Plymouth University). As yet, only one cadet has qualified, but this year we are looking forward to seven graduations (five at UKSA and one at Plymouth University). Reports from the cadets and from their colleges are very positive and there are signs that yacht skippers are endorsing our Scheme by actively involving themselves in the training of our cadets. The PYBS is unique in that no other organisation sponsors Yacht Cadets to a similar scale. For the future, we are looking to encourage large commercial yacht (superyacht) owners and managers to invest in the PYBS either by offering training opportunities for our cadets or through offers of financial support for the training of the large commercial yacht officers of the future. 43

BY

Captain Duncan Glass OBE MNM RENTAL WARDEN & DIRECTOR OF PILOTAGE AND ELDER BROTHER.

Left: OOCL Kual Lumpur.

Electronic Charts, the challenge

The paper chart evolved over many centuries and has been an essential part of navigation since the earliest voyages of exploration. As the chart evolved it has clearly displayed all the information that a navigator required in prosecuting his voyage. Electronic charts, on the other hand, have been developed in a haphazard way over the last 15 years, predominantly by technicians and manufacturers without sufficient consultation or input from the end user. Consequently, it was not until 2008 that

the International Maritime Organization (IMO) eventually mandated the carriage of Electronic Charting and Information Systems (ECDIS) by all commercial vessels over 10,000gt by 2018. The Navigation Directorate of Trinity House has maintained a fully corrected folio of all relevant Admiralty paper charts – for the waters of England, Wales, the Channel Islands, and adjacent seas – for centuries, and a Charting Officer was responsible for the provision of up-to-date charts for all Trinity House responsibilities, including the

Examiners Committee, Corporate and Lighthouse Boards, Operations Directorate, Admiralty Court and Pilotage. Since the Pilotage Act of 1987 Trinity House involvement in pilotage has been confined to the examination and annual licensing of Deep Sea Pilots. However, this in itself requires regular access to corrected paper charts for use at examination, revalidation and monitoring reports/returns from pilots. The development and availability of the Admiralty Raster Chart System (ARCS) during the early part of the new century made it possible for the Navigation Directorate, and consequently all of Trinity House, to convert to electronic charts and, after a period of running alongside paper charts, provide the charting solutions necessary for our activities. This was achieved by the end of 2007, and since that time has proven invaluable in providing digital charting information as the platform for many applications to be acquired and developed. However, the challenge has been to carry out our responsibilities using electronic charts in place of paper. In examination and annual revalidation of deep sea pilots, as well as for Nautical Assessors to the Admiralty Court, the conversion to the use of electronic charts has created new ways of working and a number of new developments.

Deep Sea Pilotage – The Digital Age Below, right: APL Poland.

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Right: Humber Bridge.

The syllabus for the examination of deep sea pilots – as set down in the Antwerp Rules of 1976 – obviously requires repeated reference to the relevant chart and has, since 1514 when Trinity House was first given responsibilities for pilotage, hitherto been reliant on Admiralty paper charts. In moving all activities to electronic charts it has necessitated a considerable change in the manner in which examinations are conducted for deep sea pilots as well as other responsibilities. Use of electronic charts in examination

A suitable examination procedure using electronic charts has recently been agreed by all three members of The Association of Deep Sea Pilotage Authorities (ADSPA) of the United Kingdom – the Trinity Houses of London, Hull and Newcastle – whilst adhering to the syllabus as prescribed in the Antwerp Rules. The examination, which has always been oral only, is conducted using a large plasma screen. The Trinity House Examining Board members use laptops to display the charts – with links to larger scale where necessary – on the big screen as they ask the questions and seek to draw the maximum information from the candidate. A common set of questions is under review by the three Authorities in order that there is no difference in the conduct of the deep sea pilot examination between them. The electronic charts for display on the screen are also common to all examinations and are corrected to date to ensure the integrity of the exam. The ARCS Charts are also used at the Annual Revalidation interviews, for all licensed deep sea pilots, when they attend for renewal of their certificates in January of each year. The Navigation Directorate provides on-line ARCS charts through their server in order that any chart for the area can be accessed and displayed during the interview. Apart from discussing with each licensed pilot the acts he has undertaken during the year, it is an essential ‘user consultation’ for the Examining Board, all of whom are members of the Examiners Committee responsible for prescribing the aids to navigation provided by the Trinity House Service for general navigation.

The greatest concern is with regard to anomalies with the equipment and software, and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) has issued a Marine Information Note (MIN406) requesting that mariners report operating anomalies identified within ECDIS. We are emphasising this to deep sea pilots at revalidation interviews. Added to the difficulties in transition from paper charts to ECDIS onboard, is the lack of suitable training among the bridge teams. Amendments to the STCW Convention at the Manila conference in 2010 will require Certificate of Competency (CoC) holders to have completed ECDIS training when they next revalidate their CoC after 1st January 2012. Therefore it can take five more years before all watchkeepers have been trained to use ECDIS. This also applies to deep sea pilots, who must have a valid CoC. But I am pleased to say that many pilots are undertaking training at their earliest opportunity, helped by the bursary grant, of £600, that the Corporation of Trinity House in London is providing towards to cost of the ECDIS Course for every deep sea pilot licensed in the United Kingdom. Online Returns

Another aspect of the digital age that we have recently applied to deep sea pilotage, is the

online submission of pilot returns. The Rules and Regulations of the UK ADSPA state that every holder of a Deep Sea Certificate shall submit to the Authority, details relating to his work as a Deep Sea Pilot on the approved type of Deep Sea Pilotage Note issued by the Authority. The normal procedure is that every pilot submits a written return by mail on a monthly basis. This provides the Authority with necessary information regarding the acts undertaken and features at the annual revalidation interview. It is, however, a considerable amount of paper that requires administration. In providing a means whereby the pilots can fill in their return online through a protected area of the Trinity House website, we overcome the burden of the papers system and provide the Authority with the means of viewing, interrogating and filtering the information submitted online by the pilots on a monthly basis. An added benefit of this online activity is that we will hold the personal details of every pilot in a secure area of the pilot pages, thus replacing the card index records previously used. 500 years of duty

We believe that many more options for taking advantage of the digital age will present themselves in due course. Examination, revalidation, recording and reporting are the first four aspects that we have applied to our responsibilities for pilotage, a duty that Trinity House has discharged for 500 years. Below: Bosporus Highway.

Feedback from pilots

The opportunity is also taken to discuss with pilots current onboard practices and the use of electronic charting systems by watchkeepers. There are many concerns regarding the plethora of different systems and the time it will take for all vessels to be fitted. 45

LIGHTHOUSE ANNIVERSARIES

Alderney Lighthouse under construction. In the Second World War keepers were evacuated by THV Vestal in June 1940 shortly before the German occupation of the Channel Islands.

A

lderney Lighthouse was built in 1912 in order to act as a guide to passing shipping and to warn vessels of the treacherous waters around the island. It is sited on Quesnard Point, to the north-east. The Alderney Race, a notorious strait of water between Alderney and Cap de la Hague in France is said to feature the strongest tidal streams in Europe. These are caused by the tidal surge from the Atlantic building up in the cul-de-sac of the gulf of St Malo with the only escape in the north-east corner between Alderney and Cap de la Hague.

Alderney and Sark Water flows through at some considerable velocity at high water and is sucked back through as the tide recedes. An uneven sea bed adds to the turbulence with a number of hazardous rocks located within a few miles of the lighthouse. Alderney lighthouse tower rises 32 metres and is painted white with a central black band to make it more visible to shipping during the hours of daylight. The former keepers’ dwellings adjoin the tower, as do the service rooms, and the station is surrounded by a white wall. Alderney Lighthouse was automated in 1997 with the keepers leaving the lighthouse on the1st October that year. The lighthouse is now monitored and controlled from Trinity House, Harwich. Before installation of the lantern and optic. Message on this postcard bears the words “Hoping to go on here… from a year’s duty Dungeness.”

46

Not far off commissioning. Posted on 18th April 1912 from B Mund (?) to Mr W H Graham at Trinity Cottages, St. Mary’s, Isles of Scilly the writer of the postcard informs “…giving you some idea of what Alderney New Lighthouse is like, a very hard station for two men…”

Established Height of Tower Height of light above MHW Electrified Automated Optic Lamp Character Intensity Range of light Fog Signal Character Fog signal range

1912 32 metres 37 metres 1976 30 September 1997 1ST order 920mm catadioptric rotating 2 X 400w Metal Halide Fl (4 )15s 294,000 candela 23 nautical miles Horn (1) 30s 2 nautical miles

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

S

ark is the smallest of the Channel Islands, and, despite being Crown Property, is ruled by a Seigneur (or feudal lord of the manor). It is a mere three miles long and two miles wide, the north and south parts being almost separate islands joined only by a narrow strip of isthmus. Mervyn Peak described the outline of Sark as being “wasp wasted” in his novel set on the island, Mr Pye. The lighthouse, which stands on Point Robert in the northeast of the island, was built by Trinity

Established

1913

Height of Tower

16metres

House in 1913. The light is elevated at 65 metres above sea level giving an indication of the steep rocky nature of the coastline, which makes landing on the island almost impossible apart from at the tiny stone harbour at Le Creux. The white, octagonal tower of the lighthouse rises from the flat roofed service rooms and dwellings, the whole complex clinging to the steep face of the cliff, which rises high above. The only means of access to the lighthouse is a flight of steps down from the top

of the cliff. The buildings, which are made of stone and surrounded by a high retaining wall, are of the sort usually found at onshore stations. However, when it was manned Sark was classed as a rock lighthouse. The main function of the station is to guide vessels, passing through the Channel Islands, away from the pinnacle of Blanchard Rock, several miles to the east of Point Robert. In Sark parish church the front pew, reserved for the Seigneur, possesses a tapestry cover made by the former Principal Keeper, Mr H.S. Taylor. This was installed for Easter 1980. Sark Lighthouse was automated in 1994 and is now monitored and controlled from the Trinity House Central Planning Unit in Harwich.

Height of Light above MHW 65metres Electrified

1969

Automated

1994

Optic

2nd Order catadioptric symmetrical rotating

Lamp

100w twin filament

Character

Fl 15s

Intensity

45,000 candela

Range of Light

20 nautical miles

Fog Signal Character

Horn (2) 30s

Fog Signal Range

2 nautical miles

47

BY Neil

Jones,

TRINITY HOUSE RECORDS MANAGER.

W

ithin a few years of settling in its new House on Tower Hill the Corporation was involved in the defence of the Thames not only during the Naval mutiny of June 1797 but also in the 1803 threat of invasion by the French when a Royal Trinity House Volunteer Artillery was formed under the command of William Pitt, Master of the Corporation. The threat of invasion passed in October 1805.

Trinity House,1514-2014

PART 3

experiments with electricity for providing an illuminant and further work saw improvements in fog signals, introduction of wireless telegraphy, use of steam power and compressed air. In 1899 there were wireless telegraphy experiments between South Foreland Lighthouse and the East Goodwin Lightvessel. Professor Holmes’ magneto was trialled at Blackwall Depot in 1857. In the early days electricity was deemed too expensive and the service, along with its sister organisations around the world relied upon paraffin vapour burners well into the 20th century.

Royal Commission Following a Royal Commission of 1834 an Act was passed within two years empowering the Corporation to buy out all remaining private lights and this was achieved with a Treasury loan and the sale of Corporation bonds. Successive Merchant Shipping Acts in the 19th century established a funding system not unlike that in use today. Ballastage declined with the introduction of the steamship and its water ballast and by 1893 the Ballastage Office was closed ending a significant income for the Corporation’s charitable work. By 1808 pilotage was mandatory on the Thames and Medway, the Pilotage Act of that year established Trinity House Pilotage Outports overseen by local pilotage committees and there was no major legislation until the 1913 Pilotage Act. Charitable activities continued with benefit being provided for decayed seamen and their widows as the rise of shipping occasioned the greater need for systematic care. In the 19th century Deptford almshouses were gradually vacated whilst those at Mile End continued to flourish. At the same time a number of small legacies provided benefit for the poorest seamen and their dependants.

Eddystone construction.

Huge advances in lighthouse engineering

The 19th century saw huge advances in science and engineering applied to lighthouses and it is notable that Professor Michael Faraday was scientific advisor to the Corporation from 1836 to 1866. He was succeeded by Professor John Tyndall (1866 to 1883) and by Lord Rayleigh from 1896 to 1919. There then followed a series of Engineers-in-Chief, notable among them being James (later Sir James) Douglass who served the Corporation from 1863 to 1892 during which time he designed 20 new towers including Wolf Rock, the new Eddystone and the reconstructed Bishop Rock. Lighthouses at South Foreland and Dungeness were involved in early

48

Eddystone Rope relief.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Blackwall Depot

A depot was established at Blackwall on the Thames in 1803. This was where buoys were made and repaired and their moorings created and stored. The Trinity House yacht based here was used to lay the buoys and collect them for maintenance and repair and the site, at the mouth of the River Lea, although no longer in Trinity House hands continues to be known as Trinity Buoy Wharf. Here is the Electricians’ Building dating from 1836 and there was also an experimental lighthouse used for trials and for training of potential keepers. Faraday, too, conducted experiments here. By 1910 there were 150 engineers, platers, riveters, pattern makers, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, carpenters, painters, chain testers and labourers employed at Blackwall. To quote John Poland Bowen, Engineer-in-Chief writing in the Service Regulations in 1960,“Whatever the Engineer may produce or the scientist devise, all these aids to navigation…pass finally into the hands of a few men who are each responsible…for the regular and uninterrupted operation of the lights and fog signals in their charge; and that, whatever else befall, the safety of shipping while at sea depends in no small measure upon their zeal in keeping a faithful watch by night and a diligent look-out by day.” This resonates quite poignantly with the national memory of the responsibilities and duties of the men and women that would define the war years in which Trinity House had no small part to contribute. Wartime requirements

During the First World War lighthouses and light vessels were ordered to maintain strict neutrality

Above: Deptford Almshouses’ residents.

and the Steam Vessel Service was busily buoying shipping lanes and swept channels in support of naval operations and moving and replacing light vessels. Over 200 additional lighted buoys and 361 additional unlighted buoys were deployed with the Corporation covering points as far-flung as the White Sea and the Persian Gulf. Lightvessels, although unpowered and vulnerable, had their part to play for they were able to signal ‘mines in sight’; rifles were supplied, hydrophones fitted for the detection of submarines, station names painted out and various hulls fitted with submarine telephone cables to enable them to alert shore stations of air raids. THV Irene was mined and sunk with the loss of 21; Alert was also mined with the loss of eleven. After the Great War for ten years Trinity House was involved in a huge wreck removal operation dispersing an average of 80 each year. More wartime requirements

In the Second World War, there was, as in the Great War, day and night collaboration with the Admiralty in order to keep the sea lanes marked and lighted for Allied convoys and to meet calls for emergency measures. The Pilotage Service guided countless ships safely to their ports under abnormal and hazardous conditions and the Dungeness pilot cutter was transferred to the Naval Examination Service. Blackwall Depot was damaged by repeated bombing and the demands on the Steam Vessel Service were continuous, the tenders being fitted out to work faster and harder. As an example of the varied work undertaken two voyages were made to Iceland with buoys and equipment at Admiralty request.

In marking the swept channels for the invasion of Normandy 73 lighted buoys and two fully-manned lightvessels were established to indicate a safe route to the beaches. Six tenders: Alert, Discovery II, Warden, Patricia, Georges de Joly and André Blondel (the latter two on loan from the French) were assembled in the Solent to be loaded for this huge task which saw some 7,500 vessels assembled. Sadly, Alert was sunk on 16th June 1944; fortunately there was no loss of life. Traffic increased in the Port of London hugely as Operation Overlord approached and in the month following D-Day nearly 3,000 ships were handled by 88 river pilots and nearly 2,000 vessels by 115 sea pilots working day and night without relief. As in the first conflict lighthouses continued to be lit on request by the Admiralty either during convoy operations or to display a light immediately for the benefit of distressed aircraft returning from raids over Europe. Trinity House losses totalled 115 personnel and of the fleet of nine lighthouse tenders four were lost to mines, two, Strathearn and Argus with heavy loss of life. To be concluded in a future issue. Captain Richard Woodman is writing the definitive history of Trinity House for publication ahead of our quincentenary celebrations in 2014.

An 18th century light vessel model.

Above: Vestal of 1855. 49

THE YOUNGER BRETHREN’S GUEST NIGHT, HELD IN TRINITY HOUSE ON 14TH FEBRUARY 2012.

Below: Queen Mary 2.

The work of the Marine Accident Investigation Branch A presentation by Captain Steve Clinch, Chief Inspector of Marine Accidents, at the Younger Brethren’s Guest Night, held in Trinity House on 14th February 2012 and at which HRH The Master presided. “Your Royal Highness, Brethren of the Fraternity and Guests, can I first thank you for giving me the opportunity to speak to you after what has been a superb meal. “The MAIB is a small organisation. it is funded by, and is part of, the Department for Transport. I have 33 highly intelligent and motivated staff and I am, frankly, very proud of what they achieve. I think I must have one of the best jobs in shipping… “However, although we are operationally independent from the department, the MAIB has not been immune from the cuts and general belt tightening that has affected the wider Civil Service. My budget for this year has been reduced by just under 20% compared with last – with the consequence that the number of inspectors I have available to deploy to accident sites has shrunk from 16 to 12. A number of administrative posts have also been lost and there has been some other cost saving measures taken, for example we now publish our safety digest two rather than three times a year. “Ironically, this has been happening against a backdrop of the introduction of an EU directive on marine accident investigation which has led to an increase in the branch’s work load. Overall, the last 18 months have been challenging but on the plus side, the situation has provided an opportunity for the branch to look closely at the way it works and we have found that we can work smarter and provide better value for taxpayers’ money 50

without significant diminution of the service we provide. However, I have to admit that we are stretched and sometimes it is difficult to be objective about performance when you are on the inside so I welcome any feedback – good or bad – on how we are doing. “Each year the branch receives on average 1800 reports of marine accidents which can range in severity from granny falling over and breaking her leg on a cruise ship to major groundings, collisions and sinkings. All the reports are entered onto the MAIB’s database for statistical purposes. About 30% require some form of follow up action – usually by telephone – and we only actually deploy to an accident site 50 to 70 times each year. since the introduction of the EU directive, we are basically obliged to produce a published report each time we deploy to an accident site whereas that was not always the case in the past. “Some of you may have seen the shorter concise reports that MAIB has introduced for less serious accidents – where there are no significant safety issues – which has greatly helped us to manage our increased work load. We still continue to produce reports in a more comprehensive format where there are more significant safety issues to highlight. “One of the most recent MAIB reports was on our investigation into the causes of an explosion and subsequent power failure on board the Queen Mary 2, as the

vessel was approaching the port of Barcelona in September 2010. “Published just a few weeks before the tragic Costa Concordia accident off the coast of Italy, the report brought into sharp focus the potential risks faced by the cruise industry when things go wrong. “I do not intend to say too much about the Costa Concordia accident. There has been enough comment on events already by the media and by the standing legion of experts that always seem to be ready to provide a quote whenever there is a maritme disaster. My hope is that whatever lessons need to learned from this tragic accident are driven by the outcome of a thorough safety investigation into the causes and circumstances, rather than any knee jerk reaction to political or media pressure. From our own accident investigations, I know that the Carnival Group have invested a lot of resources in developing robust bridge resource management procedures for their crews. Their full mission training facility at Almere, in Holland is state of the art, as is the content of their crew resource management procedures that have been rolled out across the various Carnival Group companies – including Costa Cruises. “So, from an accident investigator’s perspective, I would be very keen to understand why that training and investment appears to have failed on this occasion. The MAIB is standing by to provide assistance to its counterpart in the Italian administration if this is required; particularly in respect to the extraction and analysis of the voyage data recorder and other electronic evidence where the branch is a world leader in the field. However, at the moment the VDR remains sealed and is in the custody of the Italian prosecutor. “As a former master and ship manager, I looked on with increasing unease as the Costa Concordia’s master, Captain Schettino was so publically villified. The vitriol was so intense that I had to keep reminding myself that the loss of the Concordia was an accident and not a deliberate act. “In a previous life I was the lead investigator for the Bahamas flag investigation into the loss of the tanker Prestige. In that case, the Spanish authorities were justifiably criticised for the way they treated the Master, Captain Mangouras. In my view, the treatment of Captain Schettino by the media and, more worryingly, the owners of Costa Concordia has been equally scandalous. “Whatever he may or may not have done on that fateful night – with so much speculation and apportioned blame in the public arena – it is difficult to see how Captain Schettino can hope to receive a fair hearing at any official trial or tribunal in the future. “I would like to make a quick comment about training – the Shipping Minister, Mike Penning, has received well

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

deserved praise for getting Treasury approval to secure continued smart funding for the life of this parliament. SMART funding helps deliver upwards of 900 cadets each year and, of course, the cadet programme that is run by Trinity House is an important element of this. One of my own inspectors, Emma Tiller came through this programme. “The training of our future seafarers is vital for the continued success of the Red Ensign fleet and maritime sector industries within the UK. Without a steady supply of trained mariners, London will struggle to compete in the future with the emerging maritime centres in the Far East. Like many of you here this evening, I first went to sea at the tender age of 16. More than 40 years later I can admit that I have had a fulfilling career afloat and ashore – this great industry of ours has been good to me. “If you had asked the 16 year old Cadet Clinch what he expected to get from a career at sea, he probably would not have had a clue. My horizons were limited to my next run ashore and severe angst over the likelihood of me passing my 2nd Mate’s ticket. “Years later, one of my responsibilities in P&O was to recruit cadets in India. We only took six deck and six Above: Antari aground. engineering cadets each year but regularly received more than 1000 applicants for the posts which were for up to nine months straight, is it any wonder that then whittled down to around 30 by the time I arrived some officers fall asleep on watch or make decisions or in Bombay. One of the stock questions I always asked mistakes that ultimately lead to accidents? “When the Antari grounded off the northern Irish the candidates was, ‘What do you see yourself doing in 20 years time?’ In the early ’90s the predictable reply coastline a few years ago, with her watchkeeper fast was nearly always, ‘I want to be a Captain,’ or ‘I want to asleep, the subsequent MAIB report contained the phrase ‘unguided missile’ to describe the vessel as she be a Chief Engineer.’ “But over time the stock answer began to change ploughed her way across the shipping lanes of the north into, ‘I want to be a harbour master’ or ‘I want to be a channel. It was only by chance that Antari did not collide with another ship and that she came to rest in the shoals Superintendent’ or some other position ashore. “I am sure that if you asked today’s recruits the same of a relatively benign sandy beach. “In many of the accidents investigated by the MAIB question, the answer would be similar. “The point I am trying to make is that, if we are involving a grounding or collision during the hours of going to train and retain our best youngsters we need darkness, aside from a fatigued watchkeeper my to recognise that their aspirations have broadened inspectors usually find that no additional lookout has from what they were a generation or more ago. Our been posted – often the reasons given for this is that the training schemes need to be tailored to recognise that deck crew are needed for hold cleaning or other most recruits will not be prepared to spend 40 years of ‘important’ work. But essentially these ships are undertheir life at sea. It would therefore seem to make sense manned and I would suggest that until manning levels to develop incentives such that, when our brightest are properly matched to the trading requirements such recruits decide to come ashore, they are more likely to that the crew can get sufficient rest we will continue to stay within the shipping industry rather than be lost to see unguided missiles plaguing our waters. “Let us also look at electronic navigation. I grew up in other sectors. “In the remaining five minutes I have I will quickly an era when the Mark 1 eyeball was the preferred run through some of the issues that have me reaching navigational tool. The introduction of navaids such as for my worry beads. The first one on my list is probably GPS, AIS and ECDIS has completely revolutionised the fatigue. In an industry that mandates 90 hour plus way ships are navigated. However, although there is working weeks, where it is common for the two deck no doubt that the information available to today’s officers on board ships trading around the UK coast navigators is impressive, I do worry that basic skills and near Continent to be legally working six on six off are being lost to the detriment of ship safety. We are

beginning to see a catalogue of accidents which stem from the misuse of navaids or just plain ignorance about the capabilities and limitations of the equipment. “For example, accidents are occurring because the bridge team – especially the older generation – do not know how to use ECDIS properly. Recent MAIB investigations have identified that the generic training required by STCW is not sufficient to provide users with the knowledge needed to operate most ECDIS units. Typically for our industry, there is no standard layout for ECDIS and therefore it is imperative that ship’s staff receive proper training on the kit fitted to their ships before they are let loose to operate the equipment on their own. However, I think my over riding concern about electronic navigation is that many modern watchkeepers implicitly trust what they see on the screen and do not attempt to translate what they see in a virtual world to the one which exists beyond the bridge front windows. In short they have lost the ability to use the Mark1 eyeball. “I do not want to exceed my allotted time so I will stop here. Complacency, Ro-Ro fire protection, fishing vessel safety and alcohol are hot topics that we can perhaps talk about later over a drink – it is the diversity of marine accident investigation that makes it such a great job to be in. “Your Royal Highness, Brethren of the Fraternity, may I thank you again for allowing me to speak to you tonight. “Thank you Ma’am.” 51

BY

Jim G Davis CBE K(DK)

CHAIRMAN OF THE INTERNATIONAL MARITIME INDUSTRIES’ FORUM; YOUNGER BROTHER.

T

he day I am writing this short article is a special one. It is the 60th anniversary of our Queen’s accession – her Diamond Anniversary. It strikes a special chord with me because it is something I share with Her Majesty in that it is 60 years – not quite to the day – that I, full of verve, came down from Cambridge and started my career in shipping, as a learner (aka “Student Prince”) with the then great P&O. I hope that I may be forgiven for reminiscing a little and drawing a contrast between shipping in 1952 and the extraordinary tough world that faces it today. The changes are fundamental.

Ships and Cargoes Shipbuilding

In 1952 European yards were still building by far the greatest number of ships. This included the UK yards (John Brown’s of Clydebank, Harland & Wolff of Belfast and Vickers Armstrong of Barrow to name just three) while Germany, Sweden, France and Italy were also hugely prominent. Assuredly, Japan was progressing extremely fast as I was to see for myself when I went to work in Kobe in 1954 and saw those early monsters (55,000dwt no less) being churned out by Mitsubishi, Mitsui and Kawasaki. (It is worth recalling that the biggest merchant vessel at the Queen’s Coronation Review was a BP tanker of 37,000dwt. We then marvelled at her size). Today, the fulcrum of ship building has moved ineluctably to the Orient. Japan and Korea may P&O's 29,660gt Arcadia in Singapore in 1954.

Onassis supertanker Tina Onassis in 1953.

52

have passed their peak but China is fast pursuing even them. Bulk Shipping

In 1952 the Greeks were by far the dominant players and iconic names such as Niarchos, Onassis and Lemos unravelled the hitherto mysterious art of bank-borrowing/ship mortgages – something yet strangely ignored by most European owners. It was the Greeks’ golden era yet the beginning of the decline of European Shipping and ship building. Liner Shipping

I recall Sir Nicholas Cayzer, then Chairman of British Commonwealth declaring, “Trade follows the Flag.” Indeed he was right. In the ’50s my treasured P&O

was the greatest seaborne link between Europe /UK and the far flung outposts of the Commonwealth and UK’s particularly strong links with the Orient and the New World. Bulk cargoes were still being carried by 10,000dwt tramps and the more mature manufactured products by very fast ’tween deck 10,000dwt cargo liners (the latter with crews of 80 or so who due to interesting and continuing confrontation/ strike activity by the UK and Australian dockworkers spent nearly 50% of their time loading /discharging in port). While working in the Royal Docks I remember vividly listening to the morning tirades “on the stones” of Jack Dash the unofficial leader of the TGWU Dockers suggesting strike action against some injustice, real or imagined, by the wicked shipowners. This state of affairs simply could not go on forever yet it took the aggressive entry of an American trucker Malcom MacLean into shipping with box ships (Sealand) that finally galvanised the great liner owners (P&O, Ocean, British & Commonwealth and Furness) to come together and found OCL (Overseas Containers Limited) along with ACT in which Blue Star, Port Line, Ellermans and Ben Line were partners. Containerisation has since become a vast industry, extraordinarily efficient which has cut port time by more than 90% today. We see considerable over tonnaging over the whole sector and increasing dominance by just two or three mega-operators. On top of this the well-regulated conference system, which has provided stability in the liner trades for more than a century, has been deemed illegal by the EU as “monopolistic” and “rate fixing.” Indeed, conferences were “rate fixing” and that was their

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

main attribute and merit because they gave to shippers a convenient fixed tariff against which shippers/importers could work out in advance the c.i.f. value of their goods. It strikes me as odd that the ever busy regulators of Brussels are so antipathetic to a well regulated tariff system which in my days at P&O was never abused in pursuit of super-profits. The system certainly did not so benefit P&O. Governments in the Far East, Australasia and even the United States are less dogmatic and having second thoughts about banishing a system which has worked so well for so long. These sentiments no doubt leave me in danger of being classified as out-of-tune with today’s new world. Passenger ships

Cruising has become the wonderful “Holiday with Everything,” a description dreamed up by my P&O marketing team in the ’50s. At the time, the year that I moved on from P&O in 1973, the UK cruise market produced around 44,000 passengers. Today that figure has increased to around 1.3 million. The ships of today are quite remarkable in size and what they offer. An ice-rink on a ship for heaven’s sake! The Costa Concordia tragedy is exactly that, a

human tragedy. It is much too early to pass ultimate judgement or blame. Clearly there were four distinct issues: (i) The initial unnecessary deviation and grounding. (ii) The apparent slowness in reaction to how great the damage was. Concordia seems, at 16 knots, to have sliced through at least three watertight bulkheads and quickly flooded four or five compartments. (iii) The resultant apparently chaotic disembarkation once the ship had developed a heavy list. (iv) The effectiveness of the damaged subdivision regulations and the cross-flooding that was supposed to keep the ship on an even keel. My guess is that there will from some quarters be a demand for more “Regulations”. My view is that we already have perfectly adequate regulations but the enforcement of them is the vital area. Wind farms

One optimistic and topical area of new activity is the current obsession with wind farms. These extraordinary objects are being constructed all round the UK coastline. My personal view is that they represent wrong thinking induced by concession to the “Greens”. At

best they will yield very little of UK’s energy needs, well under 10%, but they will almost certainly produce interesting navigational problems (for Trinity House) and the turbines themselves will need regular servicing... a delicious prospect for specialist supply boat operators. Meanwhile, there is good business for those shipping companies operating some quite amazing installation craft, and even ports in the vicinity of the offshore arrays. I hope that my pessimism over the whole scheme and spectacular waste of money proves unjustified. Conclusion

The next years are not going to be at all easy for the maritime industries. Over-tonnaging is large and needs to be dealt with internationally. Piracy and global policing of the high seas must be achieved through the UN. The already apparent aim of providers/receivers of cargo to control transport of their goods will produce new challenges for traditional carriers in the maritime world. I could go on, but must not for the time being. Nonetheless I sincerely hope that our wonderful industry will fight through the next unprecedented years with the same resilience and inventiveness of its history.

u

v

w

{

y

x

z

From top left, clockwise: u Glenearn cargo liner berthing King George V Dock, London. v Grounding of Costa Concordia, Isola del Giglio, Italy, 2012. w Sealand's converted C2 boxship Warrior and feeder in San Juan, Puerto Rico. x Shipping in London's Royal Docks. y Royal Caribbean's 73,950gt Monarch of the Seas – note the climbing wall ! z King George V Dock, London's Royal Docks. { P&O's 24,200gt liner Chusan in the Solent,1950. 53

BY Captain

Duncan Glass OBE MNM

CHAIRMAN OF THE SOCIETY, RENTAL WARDEN TRINITY HOUSE, ELDER BROTHER.

The Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society LAUNCH OF THE FIRST DEDICATED DEMENTIA CARE FACILITIES FOR SEAFARERS

Above: Her Royal Highness opens the Princess Royal Annexe.

“Unbelievably crowded and insanitary accommodation; unsuitable and inadequate food, resulting in many cases of scurvy; an almost entire absence of any kind of treatment for sickness or injury; low wages; Masters who were frequently addicted to drink; the lash as punishment for comparatively minor breaches of discipline.” This was the lot of many crews in the British Merchant Navy in the early part of the 19th Century, and when a ship’s crew was discharged in port there was no provision for their welfare; many a sailor was robbed of his money and even his clothes before he had even left the dock area. Of the sailor of that time it was truly said:“Where he goes and how he fares, No one knows and no one cares” So begins the book: – The Royal Alfred Story, by A. Stewart McMillan, written in 1965 to mark the centenary of the Society which was formed to “provide a Hospital for Worn-Out and Disabled Merchant Seamen and their Widows.” In 1868 His Royal Highness Prince Alfred, accepted the office of Patron and the name became The Royal Alfred Aged Merchant Seamen’s Institution and remained thus for the next 82 years. An illustrious history

In 1950 the first Royal Charter was granted and the charity became The Royal Alfred Merchant Seamen’s 54

Society and in 1977 a new Royal Charter changed the name to The Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society and extended its benevolence to all mariners including the Royal Navy, the Royal Marines, port workers and their dependants in need. The charity has provided dedicated residential and nursing care to seafarers and their dependants throughout its 146-year history. Its mission: to provide quality care, housing welfare and support, has changed little, but the needs of its beneficiaries and how it achieves that goal has evolved with the changing requirements, the most recent being the need for high-standard care for those living with dementia.

The need for high dependency care

To meet this increase in high dependency care, the Society decided to build the UK’s first specialist dementia care unit for former seafarers and their dependants at its residential and care home at Weston Acres near Banstead in Surrey. This new facility was opened on 14th July 2011 by our Patron, Her Royal Highness, The Princess Royal. The weather was excellent and the opening event well attended with local and county dignitaries, representatives of many maritime charities, our residents and their families, our staff, volunteers and trustees. Having toured the new annexe with the Home Manager, Anne Kasey, our Patron spent time with the majority of residents and their families, which was greatly appreciated by all. A short speech from the Chairman, expressing grateful thanks for the generous financial support for the project from many, particularly the Corporation of Trinity House, Seafarers UK, the Merchant Navy Welfare Board, the Royal Navy & Royal Marines Charity and the Honourable Company of Master Mariners. This was followed by a few words from Her Royal Highness who then declared the Princess Royal Annexe open. With alarming statistics suggesting that by 2021

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

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one million people are likely to be living with dementia in the UK, (up from 750,000 at the present day), The Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society has set out to maximise its future capability for providing dedicated dementia care to residents to help increase their quality of life. We have been providing care to people with dementia for many years, but now need to ensure that residents can access specialised dementia support from trained staff in separate bespoke accommodation without the need to travel off-site to hospitals or other support facilities. The charity currently cares for around 20 residents whose dementia is at a level that they can no longer live independently. Importantly, this ensures that they are as happy and as comfortable as possible receiving the best care around the clock. There are many benefits and features of the new dementia care annexe, which is now already in use by residents. The annexe has increased the capacity to care for up to 36 residents living with the condition and includes en-suite nursing bedrooms and a landscaped internal courtyard garden providing calm, safe and comfortable outdoor surroundings. Opportunity has also been taken to provide twobedroomed sheltered apartments for couples within the new building.

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Qualified staff trained to understand residents’ needs

The physical environment of the fully-equipped new Princess Royal Annexe is complemented by qualified nurses and staff who have been trained to understand the particular needs and traits of residents living with dementia, and administer care accordingly. The team includes an activities co-ordinator who is responsible for delivering a programme of activities and leisure time tailored to the interests of each individual, as well as distributing old magazines, photographs and other visual aids to generate nostalgia, which can be a comfort to sufferers. Communication is central to the care that will be delivered at the new facility, so a series of therapies to trigger memories through conversation and interaction is planned. Innovative techniques include mind mapping and installing transparent memory boxes containing items from the residents’ past beside the door to enable them to easily identify their room. Residents can also enjoy regular reflexology sessions, which is proven to reduce agitation. Dementia, a tragic condition

Home Manager Anne Kasey, who has been with the charity for 27 years, said, “Dementia is such a tragic condition for families, and, in its most severe form, can be a kind of social death. The identity of the person can disappear as the brain degenerates. This is why it is so

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Clockwise from top: u HRH The Princess Royal, Patron of the Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society and Master of Trinity House visited Weston Acres, Banstead, Surrey on 14th July 2011 to open the country’s first specialist dementia care unit for former seafarers and their dependants. Here she is seen meeting residents and staff with, at left, the writer and from left: Mrs Brian Hammond, Lady in Waiting to HRH The Princess Royal; Ms Anne Kasey the Home Manager and Commander Brian Boxall-Hunt, the Chief Executive of the Society. v The site plan of the Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society dedicated dementia care unit at Weston Acres, Banstead, Surrey. wx HRH The Princess Royal with residents. y Her Royal Highness with, at left, Anne Kasey, the Home Manager, and residents.

important to work closely with the resident and their family to establish who the person is.” Anne continued, “By providing patients with activities and distractions tailored to their background and interests, we can try to make their later years as comfortable and fulfilling as possible. We have an expression here called ‘seize the day’, which means if we can run an activity or an excursion that we know will benefit a particular resident, we will do it. With the worrying statistic that a million people in Britain will

suffer some form of dementia within two decades, and one in three may die with it, clearly more investment is needed into diagnosis and treatment.” To find out more about The Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society, the new dementia care facility and the other support the charity provides to former seafarers, readers can visit: www.royalalfredseafarers.com or call 01737 353763. You can also find the Society on Facebook, either via the website or by searching for the Royal Alfred Seafarers’ Society. 55

BY Admiral

Sir Mark Stanhope GCB OBE ADC FIRST SEA LORD AND CHIEF OF NAVAL STAFF; YOUNGER BROTHER.

F

or much of last year around 8000 sailors and marines – nearly a quarter of the entire Royal Navy – were deployed protecting the nation’s interests in our uncertain world, as Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope the First Sea Lord explains. Who would have thought that 2011 would be the year in which the Royal Navy, while heavily committed in Helmand, would fire the most rounds from a UK warship since the Falklands Campaign 30 years ago, and undertake the first operational mine-clearance at sea since 2003? If we learn nothing else from the unfolding narratives around the world, they serve as a timely reminder that the capacity for global events to surprise even the best prepared of us, should not be underestimated. Which is why one of the Strategic Defence and Security Review’s innovations, the Response Force Task Group, otherwise known as the RFTG – designed specifically for just such a dynamic security environment – proved so successful last year. In conceptual terms, the RFTG is a quick-reaction force – consisting of ships, aircraft and amphibious forces – suited to a range of Defence tasks; from

maritime strike to disaster relief, from amphibious operations to civilian evacuation. Poised off the coast in international waters, or exercising the right of innocent passage through territorial waters, it is able to influence events ashore by deterring aggression, promoting stability and providing options for military intervention. This capacity to use the freedom and flexibility of the sea to manoeuvre and, for example, to insert and withdraw high-end land forces, or operate aircraft off a coast with relative impunity, is one that few nations possess. Last year the RFTG – and its ability to deploy at short notice with the right blend of capabilities required to undertake a wide range of specific tasks – was put to the test. And it passed with flying colours: demonstrating its value by conducting separate, yet simultaneous, missions in different theatres (off Libya and East of Suez) and by

contributing to joint and multi-national operations. It epitomised, in my view, the inherent mobility, versatility and interoperability of maritime forces. Moreover, because these are the key characteristics of maritime power, the Royal Navy was able to quickly and easily switch the tasking of not only the RFTG, but also of deployed warships and submarines. The UK’s contribution to the maritime effort to liberate Libya speaks for itself; 16 Royal Navy platforms, collectively spending over 700 days off the Libyan coast, 3100 naval personnel deployed, HMS Ocean’s Air Group conducting over 1300 deck landings, minehunters spending over 80 days close inshore, nearly 500 people evacuated from Libyan ports, and over 240 rounds fired from Royal Navy warships against pro-Gaddafi shore defences. Only history will judge but, working with many other joint and multinational force elements, it is my view that the Royal Navy achieved significant effect with a lightness of touch. An outcome, I sense, not lost on a Government whose National Security Strategy places a premium on prevention and dealing with threats at range.

The First Sea Lord’sView

Seven suspected pirates were captured with the aid of RFA Fort Victoria’s Lynx helicopter and a Royal Marines boarding team. 56

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Three Naval Air Squadrons conducting operations in Helmand province in Afghanistan: (from left to right); Lynx Mk 9A (847 NAS), Sea King Mk 7 (854 NAS) and Sea King Mk 4 (845 NAS).

Pictured above is a Seafox Combat Round being manoeuvred into its launch position by members of HMS Bangor’s Mine Disposal Crew.

A Boarding Officer gathers critical information from local fishermen, in support of HMS Monmouth’s vital counter-piracy, countersmuggling and counter-terrorism operations in the Middle East.

Meanwhile 2011 also witnessed the Royal Navy – by which I mean all Arms, Branches and Trades that form the Naval Service – achieving that outcome on operations elsewhere around the world. Take 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines’ contribution in Central Helmand, supported by the Fleet Air Arm, other Naval units and individual augmentees, including the 1* Royal Navy Logistic Command of the Joint Force Support Headquarters. When the Brigade took command of Task Force Helmand for Op HERRICK 14 in April last year, the proportion of marines and sailors representing British Armed Forces in Afghanistan rose from routinely around 10% to nearer 25%. Last summer the Brigade conducted over 90 Battlegroup-level operations and more than 600 Company leveloperations, breaking the cycle of violence in Central Helmand. Insurgent activity was reduced by 45%. Significant quantities of explosives were intercepted, the equivalent to eight months worth of IEDs, which

will not disrupt the everyday lives of the Afghan people. Furthermore, working alongside other UK and Coalition force elements, 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines increased their Afghan partners’ capacity to provide security and protect the people from insurgents, making a notable contribution to the extension of the rule of government more widely across the country. And then of course, in a world in which over a third of our global GDP is moved by sea, there is the constant need to ensure that our global trade and energy – upon which our nation’s dependency increases with the passing of each year – flows uninhibited across our oceans. But the worldwide menaces of piracy, terrorism and smuggling demand that the Royal Navy, working with many other Navies, retains a vital persistent presence in the Indian Ocean, the Gulf, the Atlantic and the Caribbean. Helping to keep the seas safe, 24/7, in much the same way as we expect our streets to be safe.

So the Royal Navy continues to influence and respond to events worldwide. Be it RFA Wave Ruler, with its embarked Naval Party, providing assistance to the Turks and Caicos Islands following Hurricane Irene in August last year. Or HMS Protector supporting the British Antarctic Survey and the wider Antarctic Treaty System during its Austral Summer deployment. Or the submarinebased Continuous At Sea Deterrent, providing the “ultimate insurance policy in this age of uncertainty” as the Strategic Defence and Security Review puts it. And so the list goes on. And it does so for one very good reason. The Royal Navy was busy last year, as it frankly is every year, because maritime forces are flexible. People and platforms can be configured, and then reconfigured (much like the RFTG), in a variety of ways that gives them real utility. Utility that provides politicians with choice. Choice that inspires confidence. Confidence to interact with and embrace our uncertain world. This is something I know the Secretary of State for Defence recognises as being fundamental for an outward-looking, globally-trading country like ours. Which is why, like me, he is determined that, “our national ambition is matched by our maritime ambition, to ensure Britain remains strong and secure.” However, as we strategically set our sights on the Future Navy Vision, by generating the Future Force 2020 (the size and shape of our future capabilities), I am very aware that reshaping the Royal Navy for the years to come is not without its challenges. Consequently, this is understandably an unsettling period for our people and their families. And yet, whilst the transition to Future Force 2020 will not be easy, there remains purpose and progress across a range of far-reaching organisational change programmes including Transforming Defence and the Navy Command Review to name just two. When combined with a formidable equipment plan – which includes new Aircraft Carriers, Type 45s, Astutes, Type 26s, upgraded helicopters, new Fleet Support ships and the successor deterrent – the Royal Navy will be even better prepared to respond to the dynamic and unpredictable global security environment. It will be even more capable at dealing with future threats: at sea and from the sea, in the air and on the land. All this will only be achieved of course when such platforms are brought together with motivated sailors and marines: committed, courageous and experts in the maritime environment. For it is the combination of capable platforms and highly trained people that will ensure the Royal Navy continues to best serve Britain’s interests. A Royal Navy that will continue to bring a degree of certainty to our uncertain world. 57

BY

Commodore Bill Walworth OBE RFA; YOUNGER BROTHER.

Waveknight RAS with HMS Sutherland.

T

he final phase of the Strategic Defence and Security Review in 2010 rolled into 2011 with the RFA downsizing in scale to meet the revised requirement for Defence and a tough year ahead with the implementation of additional efficiency measures aimed at driving down costs and focussing on our core role. The backdrop to this was the RFA being busier than ever with at times, only two of thirteen vessels not on overseas operations.

Argus and Wildcat trials.

ROYAL FLEET AUXILIARY:The final phase At sea, the long term commitments of the Caribbean, the Gulf and the South Atlantic were supplemented by the amphibious centred COUGAR deployment which proceeded through the Mediterranean to the Middle East. Attention was focussed on Yemen during the period of expanding regional unrest, while on the return leg, the COUGAR units became the lead elements of Op ELLAMY, with RFA Fort Rosalie sustaining the military efforts off Libya. Behind the scenes, Navy Command HQ continued to deliver and maintain ships on task while working through the SDSR challenge of drawing down both service and civilian personnel and developing new ways of working resulting from organisational reform within the Ministry of Defence. The RFA is embedded within these change programmes with an added focus on a detailed analysis of all our costs. Highlights of operational tasking include:

RFA Fort Victoria. Operating East of Suez throughout the year. Fort Victoria has provided key logistic support (fuel, food and ammunition) to a host of UK and coalition warships conducting security operations and patrols across the Indian Ocean and Arabian Gulf. She has been pivotal to the UK’s response to events unfolding during the Arab Spring, and was on short-notice standby to 58

provide assistance to UK nationals throughout the Middle East region. With a Lynx helicopter and Royal Marine boarding teams embarked, she has provided the UK contribution to ongoing operations to combat piracy attacks on merchant shipping in the Somali Basin and wider Indian Ocean.

RFA Wave Knight A particularly busy year for Wave Knight. Following a major capability upgrade in the UK which saw the fitting of military satellite communications along with self defence weapon and decoy systems, Wave Knight undertook Operational Sea Training before deploying to the Middle East with the COUGAR 11 Task Group. Supporting a group of seven ships as the sole tanker saw core RAS skills being regularly exercised. Once the COUGAR Group returned to the Mediterranean, Wave Knight remained on station in the Arabian Gulf and Indian Ocean operating under the Coalition logistic commander contributing to maritime security and counter-piracy operations throughout the region.

RFA Wave Ruler Having deployed initially to the South Atlantic and Falkland Islands in January 2010, Wave Ruler finally returned to the UK in December 2011 having spent

the past 18 months on the North Atlantic patrol station providing presence, re-assurance, humanitarian support and security throughout the Caribbean region. Working closely with US allies and agencies, she maintained a robust law and order presence that contributed directly to the seizure of many tonnes of cocaine destined for the UK and Europe. For the past six months, Wave Ruler has provided the entire UK military presence in the region with her own helicopter, Royal Marine marksmen and Naval manpower to enable the capability to render assistance in the wake of a hurricane strike. Wave Ruler landed personnel and stores to assist the Turks & Caicos Islands following damage caused by the passage of Hurricane Irene in Aug 2011.

RFA Fort Rosalie She deployed to the Mediterranean with the COUGAR Task Group in the Spring against a backdrop of unrest throughout North Africa and the Middle East. The UK’s contribution to operations in protection of the civil population in Libya (Op ELLAMY) required the continued presence of a naval Task Group and Fort Rosalie remained on station in the central Mediterranean to provide key logistic enablers for HMS Ocean (helicopter operations), HMS Liverpool (gunfire support) and the counter

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Royal Marines launched from Fort Victoria.

T45 Destroyer RAS with Orangeleaf.

Wave Knight and FS Commandant Birot.

Mining operation. Finally, returning to the UK in October, Fort Rosalie undertook a brief maintenance and training period before deploying to the North Atlantic station in December. Her tasking in early 2012, will include hosting the Royal visit to the Caribbean territories and supporting the Foreign Secretary at the Caribbean Conference. The BAY Class amphibious ships also continued to be fully employed: Cardigan Bay commenced the year in the UK following three years deployed training the Iraqi Navy before heading off with the COUGAR group and 40 Commando embarked for amphibious training with a number of allies and partners. She later worked with the Coastguards and military forces

of Somaliland and Puntland to aid broader UK objectives. RFA Lyme Bay has remained based in the Arabian Gulf throughout 2011 operating in direct support of the UK Mine Counter-Measures force which is maintained on station to preserve freedom of navigation throughout the region. RFA Mounts Bay accompanied the COUGAR Task Group to the Eastern Mediterranean with elements of 40 Commando Royal Marines embarked conducting training off Cyprus and Albania before returning to the UK to support core Royal Marine and aviation training activity through the Autumn. RFA Argus, with tasking as varied as ever, began the year conducting flying training with the Merlin Squadrons in the South West Approaches, then re-roled in to provide the UK’s initial humanitarian support to the civil unrest and subsequent war in Libya. Arriving in the region in advance of the multinational force, Argus poised offshore to provide presence and re-assurance in the initial stages of the Arab Spring. Once released from that duty, she moved through Suez to deliver support to UK interests in Yemen as the civil unrest continued to unfold throughout the region. Argus finally returned to the UK in July for maintenance before embarking on a further busy Autumn in support of operational flying training which included trials of the new Wildcat helicopter. The Rover Class have been at the forefront of the unstinting RFA presence in the South Atlantic including visits to South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands, while Orangeleaf which has remained primarily in UK waters has been working as a training platform for deploying warships and RFAs with a brief period in the Mediterranean to support the final stages of Op ELLAMY.

Turning the corner You will note that the First Sea Lord comments on the flexibility and utility that Naval Forces bring to the politicians and in a similar way, the RFA brings that flexibility and utility to the Naval Service. Last year I spoke of the challenge that 2011 would bring, but also of my confidence in the continued success of the RFA. The flotilla is now smaller and we have had to say

Above: Fort Rosalie with Ocean and Bulwark.

farewell to around 300 of our people. In doing so however, and with plans in hand to target the efficiencies which have been set, there is a distinct feel of turning the corner. I am optimistic that the long awaiting MARS Tankers will soon be on contract which will see a transformed flotilla with a modern tanker fleet to match the LSD(A) amphibious ships. By that time, both Queen Elizabeth Class carriers will be afloat and the RFA will be looking forward once again towards the replacement solid support ships which will be due for delivery towards the middle of the next decade. The current flotilla will continue to work hard developing even more imaginative ways of delivering or supporting the core roles of the Navy i.e. Warfighting, Maritime Security and International Engagement. Recruiting remains the cornerstone of ensuring that we continue to draw in the best people, while a range of training is under review to ensure that it meets our requirements through value for money solutions. The RFA will continue to deliver a great career, with unrivalled opportunities which cross both the military and the civil maritime environments. The demands for greater military output will remain balanced against the requirement to offer best value for money, but this is the territory where the RFA thrives. The quality of our people is key to delivering the desired effect at sea and although there remains much to do, with the ship build programme on track, the RFA is well placed to move forward, providing value for defence and an exciting career for our people.

Op COUGAR with Waveknight, Cardigan Bay, Mounts Bay, Bulwark and Ocean. 59

BY

Jessica Collins, ARCHIVIST, THE CLOTHWORKERS’ COMPANY.

Below: The Livery Hall.

The Clothworkers’ Company A SHORT DISTANCE FROM TRINITY HOUSE LIES CLOTHWORKERS’ HALL, HOME TO THE CLOTHWORKERS’ COMPANY.

Craft Origins

The Clothworkers’ Company is one of the ‘Great Twelve’ Livery Companies of the City of London. It was incorporated by Royal Charter in 1528 upon the amalgamation of two predecessor guilds, the Fullers and Shearmen. Both were involved in the final stages of cloth production known as cloth finishing or working. Finishing comprised a number of processes including fulling – washing and thickening the cloth in a slurry of water and fuller’s earth; tentering or drying the wet cloth under tension on tenterframes; teaselling the cloth with the fuller’s teasel to raise a nap; and finally shearing the nap to create a fine even finish. Allied processes included calendaring or pressing the cloth, and folding and packing it ready for export or sale. Traditionally London’s packers were concentrated around Mark and Mincing Lanes, in close proximity to Trinity House. By its Charter, granted by King Henry VIII, the Company was empowered to search out and correct poorly finished cloth, fining those responsible for bad 60

became detached from its original craft roots – a process hastened by the Great Fire of London in 1666 and the Industrial Revolution later. After a period of relative stagnation for the Company, administrative reform followed in the nineteenth century, led by Thomas Massa Alsager, a manager of The Times newspaper and brother to Captain Richard Alsager M.P., elected an Elder Brother of Trinity House in 1837. Alsager’s legacy was to turn the Company into a forward looking financial corporation, enabling it to enter a Victorian golden age in which it became more heavily involved in charitable activity, which is the Company’s primary purpose today. Above: The Master, John Stoddart-Scott and his lady visiting Blythe House.

workmanship. Cloth-making was for centuries Britain’s most important industry, and many members of the Company amassed great wealth from the export of cloth and import of luxury goods and other items from overseas. Over time, the Company

A long tradition of charitable giving

Charitable work has always been central to The Clothworkers’ Company and its predecessor companies. One of the functions of livery companies was to support their members in times of illness, old age and poverty. The Clothworkers, like many other companies, were at one time responsible for several almshouses

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Membership

The Company’s membership, obtained primarily through patrimony, comprises approximately 500 Freemen and women, and 200 Liverymen. Notable past members include Sir Robert Peel (elected Elder Brother of Trinity House in 1835), George Peabody, Lord Kelvin and Angela Burdett-Coutts. Members are encouraged to play an active role in the Company, visit charity applicants and contribute to its Livery Fund. The Company has also recently taken an interest in trusteeship in order to encourage its members to play a more active role in civil society. The Company is governed by a Court of Assistants and, in parallel to Trinity House, is headed by a Master, who is elected annually. Its most famous past Master is Samuel Pepys, a resident of nearby Seething Lane and twice Master of Trinity House. Like Trinity House, the Company worships at St Olave’s, Hart Street where both organisations participate in the annual Pepys service, and the Rector is Chaplain to both bodies. Clothworkers’ Hall

Top left: Brussels tapestry depicting the story of Cyrus, founder of the Persian Empire. Top right: Reception Room. Lower left: The Pepys plate. Lower right: Samuel Pepys, Master of the Clothworkers’ Company 1677.

– in the City of London, Islington and Sutton Valence, Kent – and for centuries provided pensions to their poorer members. As the Company’s wealth grew, largely through benefactions of property, it was also able to make grants to outside bodies and individuals. In 1551, the Company made its first grant charitable grant to a non-Clothworker – of £5 to fund a poor divinity scholar at Christ Church, Oxford – and set in train a long tradition of charitable giving that has continued ever since. Education has always been a particular focus. During the nineteenth century, the Company made pioneering grants to the higher education of women, supporting the new colleges for women at Oxford and Cambridge. It was at this time that the Company also became heavily involved in technical education; the Company has a long standing connection with the University of Leeds, of which it has been a major benefactor since it funded two Clothworker textile

departments there in the 1870s. With The Drapers’ Company, it was pivotal in the establishment of the City and Guilds of London Institute in 1876. The charitable work of The Clothworkers’ Company is today carried out through The Clothworkers’ Foundation, its independent charitable arm. It was established in 1977 and to date has made grants totalling £83 million to a wide variety of causes. One of the areas in which its grant-making is focussed is textiles, in order to strengthen the Company’s ties to its clothworking roots. The Foundation recently made an anchor donation to the Victoria and Albert Museum for the creation of The Clothworkers’ Centre for Textiles and Fashion Study and Conservation to open in 2013 at Blythe House near Kensington Olympia. In 2011, a grant of £30,000 was also made to the E. Hayes Dashwood Foundation, a charity which has a long association with Trinity House.

Fellowship and hospitality have always been central to livery company life. The Company welcomes its members to a number of Livery Dinners and functions during the year and all members of the Freedom are invited to a festive lunch each December. The location for these festivities is Clothworkers’ Hall, situated in Dunster Court off Mincing Lane. The Hall was built in 1958 and is the sixth livery hall to stand on the same spot, the site having been granted to a group of Shearmen in 1456. Previous Halls were either pulled down to make way for bigger, better homes, or were sadly lost over time. The third Hall was destroyed in the Great Fire of London and the fifth during the Blitz in 1941. The present Hall was extensively refurbished in the 1980s in styles evoking the history of English Classicism from Christopher Wren to the present. Particular highlights include the large wood panelled Livery Hall, a sumptuous Reception Room in the Georgian style and a series of three stunning eighteenth century Brussels tapestries. Portraits of many past Masters adorn the walls, including Pepys. The diarist remarked of a visit to Clothworkers’ Hall on 28th June 1660, “our entertainment very good. A brave hall. Good company and very good Musique.” The Company endeavours to continue this tradition of hospitality for many more centuries to come. For further information about The Clothworkers’ Company please visit the website: www.clothworkers.co.uk Clothworkers’ Hall is available for hire for conferences and functions. Please visit www.itstheagency.co.uk for details. 61

Sir Robin Knox-Johnston:

15 YEARS OF CHALLENGING PEOPLE TO RACE AROUND THE WORLD

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rinity House Younger Brother, Sir Robin Knox-Johnston has accomplished many achievements in his lifetime. As the winner of the Times Golden Globe Race in 1969 Sir Robin has set his place in the history books as the first ever man to sail solo and non-stop around the world. Since then he has taken two more trips around all the world’s oceans – both as the fastest and oldest.

Clipper Ventures Sir Robin Knox-Johnston’s interest for sailing started when he was eight years old and at 18, he served in the Merchant Navy for 13 years as a deck officer with the British India Steam Navigation Company. Nearly seven decades later his unbelievable track record on the world’s oceans has made him one of the most accredited sailors of our time. In 1994 he won the Jules Verne Trophy with team mate Peter Blake for sailing around the world in 74 days 22 hours, and in 2007 he completed his second solo circumnavigation, as the oldest competitor in the Velux 5 Oceans Race. Wanting everyone to have the opportunity to experience the challenge and sheer exhilaration of ocean racing, Sir Robin set up Clipper Ventures in 1995 providing ocean racing yachts and equipment, qualified skippers and intensive training. He explained, “The idea came to me on a mountain in Greenland. I was climbing with Chris Bonington and, during a break in our camp on a glacier as we made our way towards our objective, he explained how much it costs to climb Mount Everest. If Mount Everest is the ultimate in mountaineering, what I thought, was its equivalent in sailing? And it is of course a circumnavigation.” That is how the Clipper Race story started and it has come a long way in 15 years. Most of Sir Robin’s time in 2011 has been dedicated to the unique company and the future looks even more exciting. Making dreams come true

The Clipper Round the World Race Yachts have taken part in more than 1.8 million miles of ocean racing, they have visited 22 countries on six continents and delivered a unique ocean racing experience to more than 3,000 crew representing 300 professions and 52 nationalities. On top of that, hundreds of business partners, diverse delegations, yacht sponsors and host destinations have networked alongside the Clipper Race in ports of call, creating hundreds of millions of dollars of economic impact, international trade, media exposure and social legacy. Through the 62

company’s teaching division, Clipper Training has transformed more than 4,000 novices into racing yachtsmen and women, able to reach the pinnacle of ocean sailing – a full circumnavigation. Clipper Ventures has successfully organised seven round the world yacht races for non-professional sailors. “This race has become increasingly international, the crews come from 40 different countries, and the city sponsor scheme and the promotions those cities make in the stopping ports, means that Clipper now employs more than 50 people and earns 60% of its income from outside the UK,” said Sir Robin. The Clipper 11-12 Race is the eighth edition of the biennial event and will continue to build on that track record, introducing new crew and partner initiatives. More than 500 people representing more than 40 nations are competing in Clipper 11-12. Crew can sign up for the whole circumnavigation or one or more of eight legs. The only qualification for the race is the minimum age of 18 – there is no upper age limit. The overall race is divided into individual stages and points are accumulated in a Formula 1-style scoring system. The yacht with the highest total at the finish wins the Clipper Trophy at the end of the race in Southampton this July. “The race departure from Southampton was spectacular and the warmth and enthusiasm of the thousands of spectators who waved them off made a lasting impression on all the crews. It was one of the many race highlights of last year.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

More than 300 boats were on the Solent to see the Royal Navy’s helicopter carrier, HMS Illustrious lead the way for the ten-strong fleet to commence the race from Southampton in August 2011.

“We anticipate another great reception when the fleet returns next July after its year-long circumnavigation. The crews are ordinary people who have done something extraordinary in taking on some of the world’s toughest oceans. They deserve a hero’s welcome,” the Clipper Race Chairman said. New fleet

The Clipper Race currently consists of ten 68-foot identical racing yachts which have raced since Clipper 05-06. However, this year, for Sir Robin and his team the future is being shaped as a larger fleet is currently under construction to respond to growing demand from crews and sponsors who are already signing up for Clipper 13-14 and beyond. For the Clipper 13-14 Round the World Yacht Race the introduction of the Clipper 70, designed by the highly respected naval architect Tony Castro, steps things up a gear once more. Sir Robin added, “The Clipper 70 will form the third generation of Clipper racing yachts and Tony Castro’s design is an exciting one, perfectly suited for this particularly gruelling sailing event. The new yachts will be built in China and fitted out by UK and international suppliers. The fleet will increase from ten to 12 yachts and the crew capacity from 20 to 22.” New features include twin helms, twin rudders and a six-foot bowsprit which allows the inclusion of a huge Code Zero sail to complement a suite of Yankee headsails, staysail and main. This new sail will increase performance in light airs and deliver higher daily average speeds across the 40,000-mile race. The mainsail will have three reefing points and will

be set from a 92-foot mast. The inclusion of state of the art features in the new hull design will give better performance and, when surfing on big following seas, the Clipper 70 is likely to set new speed records compared to the previous fleets; crews can expect to top 30 knots when conditions suit. Concluded Sir Robin, “The order for twelve identical yachts, is progressing on schedule. This fleet will commence service in the Clipper 13-14 Round the World Yacht Race, the ninth in the series, which since 1996 has introduced more than 3,000 people to the sport of sailing.” More new adventures

In addition to the Clipper 11-12 Race, last year Sir Robin entered the 2010 Rolex Sydney Hobart Race for the first time. Sir Robin was invited to race on a Nautor’s Swan yacht joining Olympic medallist Mark Covell and British match racer and commentator Andy Green with owner Richard Dobbs in the British registered, Swan 68 Titania of Cowes for the Boxing Day start line in Sydney. Last year also saw Sir Robin became a trustee of the Cutty Sark Trust. As the world’s last tea clipper she served as a working cargo ship from 1869 to 1922. She was preserved by Captain Wilfred Dowman as she was a vessel that was at the highest development of the fast commercial sailing ship. “The fire that nearly finished her is history. Lord Sterling (Elder Brother) took charge of the restoration which will completely change her appearance and make her one of London’s best and most fascinating attractions. Inside the hull she has been rebuilt, but her

old frames, now badly rusted, have been left in place so it is possible to see her original composite construction. The lower hold and tween deck is rebuilt and will show the history of the vessel and the trades in which she participated. It is work that brings back the fond memories, and smells of one’s apprenticeship,” reflected Sir Robin. An article on the restoration of Cutty Sark is to be found on pages 78-79. To add to his list of achievements over the last twelve months Sir Robin has now received his fifth Honorary Doctorate, this time from the University of Hull, having received previous honours from the Maine Maritime Academy, the Universities of Southampton and Plymouth, and Fellowship from Liverpool John Moores University. Sir Robin attended the ceremony in Hull on 26th January and remarked, “It just goes to show that you can never stop improving yourself.” 63

BY

Charlotte Bleasdale,

ARCHIVIST FOR THE SWIRE GROUP –

SIR ADRIAN SWIRE, HONORARY PRESIDENT OF THE SWIRE GROUP, IS AN ELDER BROTHER OF TRINITY HOUSE.

The Swire group –140 years in shipping F ounded in 1816 in Liverpool and thus just a few years shy of its 200th anniversary, the Swire group’s marine interests date to the mid-1860s when the firm took a substantial shareholding in the Ocean Steam Ship Company (Blue Funnel) and also became its Far Eastern agent and manager. While Swire dabbled in ship ownership as early as the 1850s, its operational interests began in 1872 – 140 years ago this year – when The China Navigation Company was formed to operate paddle steamers on the Yangtze River. Shipping has remained a core business for Swire and even though in recent decades it has taken a back seat to high-profile sectors such as property and aviation, the marine portfolio has continued to expand and diversify and today includes a wider mix and geographical spread than at any time in its history.

Deep sea shipping China Navigation (CNCo) is the group’s principal deep-sea shipping arm and is now one of the oldest independent British ship owner-operators. From the Yangtze, the company quickly expanded to the China Coast, Far Eastern ports and Australia. After the Second World War, with the progressive loss of its traditional China trades, CNCo began to establish “new” trades from Australia to the Pacific Islands and Papua New Guinea – where in the 1960s, the company pioneered palletisation, using ships converted to side-port loading. This innovative approach was ideally suited to island ports where shore facilities were minimal and CNCo later upgraded these services to full containerisation, using self-geared vessels. CNCo has since moved into the dry bulk carrier market and has also pursued highly successful experiments with seminar cruising (throughout the ’70s and ’80s) and VLCCs (from the mid-’80s to mid-’90s); nevertheless, these Pacific trades remain at the heart of its operations to this day. Below: Hongkong Salvage & Towage’s Ap Chau goes to the aid of a stricken products tanker in 2010.

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Headquartered in Singapore, the company manages nine multipurpose liner services under the Swire Shipping brand, serving North, East and Southeast Asia, Papua New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands and extending to West Coast North America and Europe. CNCo also has longstanding shareholding and management interests in Polynesia Line (West Coast North America to the South Pacific Islands), New Guinea Pacific Line (East and Southeast Asia to the South Pacific Islands) and Greater Bali Hai (North Asia to the Pacific Islands). CNCo’s owned fleet consists of 18 vessels (17 multipurpose and one bulk carrier), with a further eight 31,000dwt multipurpose vessels under construction for delivery in 2013. Panamax bulk carrier Erawan is stationed in PNG, under contract to Ok Tedi Mining, and acts as a transloader for cargoes of copper concentrate shipped down the Fly River from their mine at Tabubil – thus playing a pivotal

role in one of the country’s biggest export earners.

Dry bulk cargo

Towards the end of last year, CNCo re-launched its dry bulk cargo operating activities, which had been dormant since relinquishing its Capesize bulk carrier Erradale in 2009. The new Handy Bulk Division currently operates four 42,000dwt vessels on a semi-liner basis between Australia and North, East and Southeast Asia. Swire CTM Bulk Logistics, a joint venture with C Transport Maritime, meanwhile specialises in solutions for loading and discharging bulk cargoes in challenging offshore locations. Swire has extensive coastal shipping interests in PNG through subsidiary Steamships Trading Company, which has 13 vessels specialising in estuarine and river trades, with a number on longterm charter to Ok Tedi Mining for the Fly River service. Steamships also has a 51% shareholding in Consort Express Lines, which operates eight vessels connecting 13 domestic and one Australian port.

Offshore opportunities The 1974 oil boom caused Swire to look seriously at opportunities for investment in the offshore industry. Founded in 1975, Swire Pacific Offshore (SPO) is one of the world’s leading providers of marine support to the offshore energy industry, with a fleet of 77 vessels, including Anchor Handling Tug Supply vessels, Platform Supply Vessels, Ice-breaking Supply Vessels, Anchor Handling Tugs, ROV/Dive Support Vessels, Maintenance/Utility Vessels and Seismic Survey

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Vessels. During 2012, SPO will take delivery of two wind-farm installation vessels and two accommodation barges; a further 30 new vessels are in the pipeline for delivery by 2015. Based in Singapore, SPO is active in every major oil exploration region outside North America. Subsidiaries, Swire Salvage and Lamor Swire Environmental Solutions, focus on global emergency response and environmental cleanup services, while Danish joint venture Swire Blue Ocean A/S has developed an innovative vessel for installing offshore wind turbines and aims to be a leading service provider to this new industry. Associate company, Swire Oilfield Services, provides transportation, specialist equipment hire and bulk storage and distribution services to the global offshore oil and gas industry from its UK base.

Engineering and ship repair Swire’s ship repair activities date from 1907 and the opening of Taikoo Dockyard in Hong Kong. Taikoo (the name is Swire’s Chinese hong or company name, meaning “Great and Ancient”) became one of Asia’s foremost shipbuilders, but by the 1970s, the advent of large container ships made its Hong Kong Island site unviable and the yard was closed down and redeveloped by Swire Properties. Taikoo meanwhile merged with rival Hongkong & Whampoa Dock Co. to form Hongkong United Dockyards and established premises at the new container port. Today, HUD provides comprehensive ship repair and engineering services with its own Panamax floating dock; its towage and salvage division, Hongkong Salvage & Towage, owns and operates 11 tugs totalling 40,800 bhp, as well as operating six specialist container vessels in an outlying islands refuse collection contract for the Hong Kong Government.

In PNG, Steamships subsidiary, Marine Engineering Services, offers small ship repair at Port Moresby and has a 50% shareholding in Pacific Towing, a harbour towing, offshore support and salvage operation with 12 tugs and ten line boats across eight PNG ports.

Agency Steamships also operates PNG’s largest shipping agency business and has a shareholding in and manages joint-venture stevedoring partnerships with local community groups at the country’s seven major ports, providing employment to over 700 people. Swire Shipping Agencies provides services for its own and other liner services around the Asia-Pacific region, while CNCo subsidiary Quadrant Pacific provides shipping agency services in New Zealand and has interests in a shipping agency in Fiji and stevedoring businesses in Wellington and Tauranga.

A proud history Swire is proud of its long history in the marine sector, but key to this longevity has been the ability to look forward rather than back. Long-term investment means commitment to innovation, technological advancement, training and continuous improvement of service and Environment, Health and Safety standards. Without the willingness to evolve and the drive to constantly seek new opportunities it would not have survived.

The China Navigation Company’s Coral Chief works cargo in Melbourne, November 2011 (photo: Mike Carolin).

The Erawan, a Panamax bulk carrier was converted into a floating transfer terminal with extra living accommodation, helipad, three offset cranes,weighing equipment, and a chemical analysis laboratory.

Below: Swire Pacific Offshore’s 12,240BHP Anchor Handling Tug Supply vessel, Pacific Blade at Aberdeen (photo: Jim Pottinger).

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BY

Rear-Admiral David Snelson CB FNI, YOUNGER BROTHER.

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ast year I completed almost five years as the Chief Harbour Master of the UK’s second largest port. It was a fascinating experience and as ever, I learnt as much from the job as I contributed to it. I thought fellow Brethren might appreciate an update on what happens in the port today and a few observations on navigational safety – the heart of any harbour master’s job.

The Port of London Authority REFLECTIONS ON FIVE YEARS AS CHIEF HARBOUR MASTER

The Port of London today

Not surprisingly, many people think the Port of London closed years ago, but actually, like most estuarial Ports, it has just moved further downstream and is almost as big as it used to be in its heyday. In 2010 the Port of London handled nearly 55 million tons of cargo – close to its all time high of 61.3 million tons in 1964. One of the disadvantages of this move to the deeper water is that the port and its significance to Londoners is out of sight and out of mind. Like many mariners, I complain about sea blindness and now bore people with how important ships and shipping are to them. Next time you fill up your car with fuel – reflect for a moment how the fuel got there – by sea and up the river Thames. In one sense, it does not matter if people do not know how goods get to the shops or petrol stations. But this lack of maritime awareness leads to ideas such as proposed tidal barrages in the Thames estuary not including the locks that would be needed to continue to get ships to the port – and keep the South East’s economy running. However, there probably is room for an airport in the estuary if a wind farm is removed. Three harbours in one

Top: The pilot at work. Left: Thames Clipper, one of the high speed commuter craft on the Thames. Below: Maersk Kalmar, one of the many large container vessels visiting the Port of London in the year.

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The PLA has a large bailiwick, stretching from Teddington in the west to a line between Clacton and Margate – 95 miles west to east and 400 square miles in area. This means that the PLA manages one of the biggest Vessel Traffic Service areas in the country and one of the largest pilotage districts.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

The Pilots, at around 90 in number, are the single biggest group of employees out of the 360 total. And I do not see the need for Pilots disappearing in the near future. Some of the standards of navigation I observed onboard ships convinced me that a port having its own ‘navigator’ on the bridge is still a vital safety tool. The port divides naturally into three areas. 1. To the east, in the estuary, the characteristics of

the port are predominately those of any commercial port – large and not so large ships trading to container berths, oil terminals, ro ro terminals and many others. London deals with virtually all types of cargo: molasses for sugar, aggregates for building, bulk grain, containerised cargoes of all types, refined petroleum, crude oil and LPG, plus many other cargoes too numerous to mention. 2. In the central section of the PLA area – basically through central London – the activity is characterised by the use of the river for sightseeing passenger boats, high speed commuter services and barge trains moving a significant proportion of London’s waste out to landfill sites or – shortly – to the ‘waste to energy’ plant at Belvedere. While sometimes it might seem to the casual observer crossing one of London’s many bridges that the river is underutilised, in fact at critical times of day when commuter services, sightseeing services and barge movements combine, there is a significant traffic management challenge. Contrary to general perceptions, many millions of commuters use the river each year; particularly on the recently introduced high-speed services from Woolwich, Greenwich and Canary Wharf. 3. Effectively up stream of Putney is characterised by a concentration of leisure activities. More than half of Britain’s rowing takes place on the tideway here as well as considerable summer private leisure traffic moving to and from the Thames above Teddington. In a typical March ‘Head of the River’ event involving rowing eights there may be over 200 entries which means that around 2,000 people can be afloat at any one time – and most of them navigating backwards! Safety Management

Underpinning all of the Chief Harbour Master’s responsibilities is a comprehensive safety management system containing a list of over 100 specified navigational risks in order to ensure that proper risk mitigation measures are applied. This may all sound a bit bureaucratic but by assessing the likelihood and consequence of a risk happening, a properly considered set of mitigation measures can be put in place. For instance, ‘Risk of grounding in the outer estuary’. Risk

Top: PLA VTS at the Thames Barrier Lower left: Ferries at Gravesend.(TBNC). Lower right: A recreational rower.

mitigation measures; put a pilot onboard; monitor the passage by VTS and make sure the channels are properly marked. It sounds simple and a process most seafarers might feel is superfluous. However, consider some of the more challenging risks such as the high-speed passenger catamarans between Embankment and Woolwich. 30 knots at night with up to 200 passengers onboard. How safe is that? Well, apply a sophisticated risk assessment process to the risks of collision, contact and grounding and you can decide on a safety regime which permits high speed navigation – though, not surprisingly, not in all areas at all times. I am somebody who in my former life might have operated a bit more on the basis of instinct, experience and training – and not so much on formal risk assessment. But I have learnt that, properly applied, a decent risk assessment, which is scientific in nature and not just box ticking, will bowl out most risks. Sadly, accidents still happened on my

watch, despite the fact that the safety management system was comprehensive. And in almost every case where an accident occurred the subsequent investigation showed that the circumstances might have been foreseen and in a number of cases loss of life avoided. Finally, it is worth mentioning that all of the PLA’s activities are funded without recourse to the public purse. The users of the river and estuary and those who build structures in the river, such as jetties, or the London Eye, pay the bills. Conclusion

The ports industry and the Port of London in particular is part of the vital lifeblood of the nation. Are the public particularly interested? Perhaps not. However, to anyone involved it is a fascinating endeavour that requires an unremitting attention to safety. The sea can still bite and a professional approach to all activities afloat is vital. 67

BY

Captain Peter Hall, CHIEF EXECUTIVE AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT, GIBRALTAR PORT AUTHORITY; YOUNGER BROTHER.

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ibraltar has been a major port since the time of the Phoenicians and has centuries of maritime heritage. Captain Peter Hall CEO of Gibraltar Port

from 2008 to 2011 explains what services the port supplies and what is being done to maintain Gibraltar’s position as a centre of Maritime Excellence. Location- Key to success

Gibraltar for centuries has been strategic in supporting worldwide shipping. The fortunes of the port have ebbed and flowed in response to world demands. Without doubt the port’s location has been a key factor in its success, centred at one of the major cross roads of international trade. Gibraltar has been blessed with natural assets of sheltered deep water. These have been augmented over the years with drydocks, repair facilities, berths and safe anchorages. There is an international airport minutes from the port, enabling passengers, crews and supplies to reach vessels with the minimum of delays. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 brought about major infrastructure investment in Gibraltar with drydock facilities and berths being built. With the advent of steam Gibraltar became a bunkering port, which it maintains today although the coal has been replaced with fuel oil. The port also developed as a location for rest and recuperation of troops and immigrants travelling to new frontiers. Now the port plays host to the cruise industry attracting 350,000 passengers from worldwide locations – almost one cruise vessel arriving every day of the week. Meeting the needs of the future

The Port continues to adapt and respond to its changing circumstances, once dependent upon the MoD which accounted for 60% of Gibraltar’s economy this

has been reduced to 7%. Consequently “change” is an ever present word in the Port’s vocabulary. One of the biggest changes in the last two to three years has been to Port Management. The Port Act paved the way establishing an “independent” Port Authority. This took the port from a “Civil Service department” to an entity that operates with greater freedom harnessing the commercial expertise needed to respond to international demands. The act defined the objectives of the Port Authority and the mechanism of oversight by a board of Directors. The Act also permitted the Authority to make a profit and raise private finance; consequently the Port has the ability to invest in major development projects. Safety of Navigation

One of the first investments over the last three years has been to upgrade the Vessel Traffic Management System. Given the Port’s position, the number of vessels transiting the area (110,000) and the types of operation carried out. The assurance of Safety of Navigation was paramount. With the Port having responsibility for Search and Rescue the ability to triangulate positions, monitor radio communications and alerts and track responses was also a key requirement. Consequently a state-of-the-art system that went beyond the average port system was required. With the close proximity of the African coast introducing smuggling and immigration challenges, the system

was required to, not only track targets, (up to a speed of 90 knots with a target area of a metre) but also monitor activities by synchronized CCTV surveillance. Given the Port’s dependence upon fuel oil transfer operations, the system also required the ability to detect pollution and provide alerts to the observers. To add value we also wanted to harness this technology and deliver benefits to all the port’s customers. This was achieved with the avoidance of double handling of data and the provision of timely information. Overall the delivery of enhanced Safety of Navigation was our goal. The system is now supporting all the elements of the port’s business and growth by enabling more efficient handling of arrivals and departures. Cruise Industry

Gibraltar continues to play a key part with the major cruise operators, recently handling 250 ship calls a year, attracting over 350,000 passengers, a significant multiplier to the Rock’s economy. This presents a logistics challenge in handling on peak days 10,000 passengers through the port on a single day. Some passengers prefer to walk into town others board excursion coaches and some take a taxi. Visitors are surprised by the diverse range of attractions on offer in Gibraltar. Steeped in history, located at the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula, where Europe meets Africa, visitors are assured of breathtaking scenery, wildlife and architecture. The Rock captures the unique flavour of a Mediterranean city with an obvious British ingredient. As a VAT free jurisdiction, Gibraltar’s popularity with visitors continues to grow.But this growth cannot be taken for granted and new ways are sought to add value to benefit both Gibraltar and its customers. One such initiative was recently announced to

Gibraltar – Rock Solid

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

allow cruise ships to open their on-board casinos and shops to their passengers whilst alongside. This provides an incentive to the cruise ships to remain in port until the early hours of the following morning. Up until now, ships have usually sailed at around 1700 or 1800 even though their next port may be only two or three hours away. The benefits are that both passengers and off-duty crew have the opportunity of going ashore in the evenings delivering additional business opportunities for local traders. But it also means ships will save fuel by remaining berthed for a longer period of time, crews have an opportunity to rest longer and it also removes slow moving vessels from an already congested sea area. A win-win situation. Another recent development by the Port is the extension and refurbishment of the existing Cruise Terminal, enabling larger ships to call and to handle the increasingly growing numbers of passengers in a more efficient and user friendly manner. The “New Terminal” will boast an expanded Arrivals Hall doubling Security and Immigration control facilities, a new mezzanine level with restaurant and viewing gallery. Bunkering

“Gibraltar was the first European port to establish a supervised and policed bunkering code that ensures the customer receives the quality, quantity and environmental standards expected in this modern age.” Gibraltar maintains its position in the top ten world bunkering ports and continues to see its bunkering companies go from strength to strength. (see photograph column 3 lower) A fleet of 17 modern tankers delivered over 4.4 million tonnes of bunkers to over 60% of the 11,000 deep-sea vessels that visited Gibraltar in 2011. A full range of marine fuel from 30 cSt to 380 cSt, can be delivered in either low sulphur or standard product variants. These products are supplied by dedicated lines with constant quality checks ensuring continuously high performance. The

Port is currently looking at developing shore storage facilities to eradicate the current floating storage which serves the industry. Marine Services

Gibraltar provides a range of marine services, from crew changeovers to stores and luboil supply. A fleet of supply craft is berthed in the port constantly loading and unloading supplies. The Port licenses these operations and audits their activities to ensure they are safe and efficient and maintain the Rock’s reputation for quality. Drydock facilities

The development of Gibraltar as a repair facility was prompted in part by Lord Nelson, whose flagship Victory was one of several warships to be repaired at the naval dockyard. Repair facilities were enlarged with the construction of its dry docks in 1891 and 1906. Today, it is owned and operated by Gibdock who provide a full range of ship repairs and dry-docking capabilities. (see photograph next column) Three dry docks ranging in length from 154 metres to 272 metres supported by ten cranes making up the flexible core of the yard. A 300 metre main wharf and a 435 metre mole complete the repair facilities infrastructure. Arrested Vessels

The global crisis has increased the number of shipowners facing financial strife with the knock on effect in a rise in the numbers of vessels arrested. This is an important sector of the Rock’s maritime economy. Since 1996 Gibraltar has positioned its jurisdiction to favour banks to enforce their security against ships by arresting and procuring judicial sale at auction. The combination of location and widely recognised ship arrest jurisdiction has laid foundations for a new market opportunity. The financial markets know that Gibraltar is a very quick cost effective jurisdiction.

Ship Registry

The Gibraltar Ship Registry is a high quality – and rapidly expanding – Register. With more than 280 oceangoing vessels on the Register, amounting to over 1.6 million gross tonnes, nearly every type of commercial vessel is represented on the Gibraltar Registry. This Red Ensign (Category 1) Register enjoys the support of Gibraltar’s first-rate legal and fiscal environment. It is the only Register of this group, other than the UK, which is a member state’s Register within the European Union, giving ship operators EU cabotage privileges. Ships registered in Gibraltar are also British ships and fly the Red Ensign – a symbol of safety, environmental protection, quality and high standards that is recognised throughout the world. Super Yachts

We are planning to re-launch the Gibraltar Yacht Registry in 2012 and begin to actively encourage more “mega-yachts” to switch to the Gibraltar Flag or be registered here from the outset of their construction. At present, most appear to fly the flag of the Cayman Islands, which like Gibraltar, is also a Red Ensign Category 1 Ship Register.The internationally-recognised Large Yacht Code was introduced in Gibraltar during 2011, under which large yachts operating commercially, can benefit from a number of tax breaks. We are certainly very keen to see how Gibraltar could become a major player in this sector. The legislation is in place to be able to register mega-yachts and, being a relatively small Register, we can offer a personal, oneto-one service that the larger jurisdictions cannot.

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BY

Captain Nick Nash FRGS FRIN FNI

PRINCESS CRUISES, PART OF CARNIVAL CORPORATION, YOUNGER BROTHER.

From Beaufort House to Crown Princess

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his year sees the 175th anniversary of P&O and the milestone will be celebrated with a steam past of elements of the fleet in the Solent on 3rd July and at which it is expected Trinity House will be represented. According to the historians P&O Cruises, now part of Carnival Corporation, can trace a colourful history back to 1837 when Arthur Anderson and Brodie McGhie Wilcox, founders of the Peninsular Steam Navigation Company, were awarded a contract to carry mails from London to the Iberian Peninsula. Passengers were also carried and, clearly, the business developed with the company setting standards for service, reliability, comfort and so forth. It is appropriate then in this year, for me to record my own history with the company which will enable the reader to appreciate how the merchant service has evolved over nearly 40 years and, how navigation advances have been made. In 1989 I joined the P&O Steam Navigation Company after having failed an interview in Beaufort Street in 1977. Following that rejection I was fortunate in passing the same examination in Southampton and joined the Cunard Steam Navigation Company to serve a cadetship. Over the following 12 years I was fortunate in serving in vessels of Port Line, Brocklebank, Moss Tankers, ACT, United Fruit and ACL. During this time I also served

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for six months in Queen Elizabeth 2 and five years with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. Royal Princess

My first appointment with P&O was in the large and modern Royal Princess (44,548grt). This was a time of change as P&O Cruises had acquired Sitmar cruises and had two new ships under construction in Italian yards, Crown Princess and Regal Princess, each of 70,000grt. Further changes in P&O took place with the launch of more new tonnage Sun Princess and Dawn Princess (78,000grt). In Royal Princess I advanced through the officer ranks to Staff Captain in 1997 with an appointment in the new Grand Princess (109,000grt). In command was Captain, later Commodore, Mike Moulin, Younger Brother. At this stage we were introducing the new Grand Class style of cruising. As for navigation we were using the first ECDIS charts (pre-ENC) with paper charts still regarded

as the “official navigation method.” There was an embryonic Bridge Team Management system. A de-merger took place in February 2000 whereby all cruise ship operations were taken out of the P&O Group to form a new, independent company, P&O Princess Cruises plc which operated P&O Cruises, Princess Cruises, P&O Cruises Australia, AIDA Cruises and later A’Rosa cruises and Ocean Village Fleets before a further merger to form Carnival Corporation plc in 2003. My first command

On promotion to Captain my first command was Royal Princess in 2003. Successive commands were in Grand Princess, Golden Princess, Star Princess (109,000grt) and ultimately Crown Princess (113,000grt). By 2006 the remaining part of P&O had been taken over by Dubai Ports, marking the end of the P&O Steam Navigation Company. Three years later the separate groups within P&O/Princess/Cunard/P&O Australia separated and became autonomous within the Carnival Group. I remained with Princess and am now employed by Fleet Maritime Services (Bermuda) Limited of Guernsey, a long road from Beaufort House EC3.

Below: The new 109,000grt Grand Princess. Photo: Tony Rive of St Peter Port, Guernsey.

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

bridge and replaces it with functions: Operations Director (usually the Captain); Navigator; Co-Navigator and Administrator (JOOW – Alarms, check list completion, healing tanks, watertight door monitoring, telephones and so forth). The Operations Director monitors the whole bridge team’s situational awareness and performance. He should be ready to step in and assist or even take over any role within the bridge organisation. He stands slightly back and outside the concentrated Navs/Co-Navs/Admin (and pilot) triangle and so should be able to monitor them from an overview position, looking over and around as opposed to up and out. BTCC also formally separates the Con – “Direct the steering of the ship” and Charge – “Responsible in law for the ship.” The Navigator has the Con, but not necessarily the Charge. The Captain will always have the Charge – once he has gone through the takeover checklist but may not have the Con. The Pilot can have the Con, but never the Charge. 2010 – Crown Princess’s Bridge – fully integrated.

Bridge Team Management in a Princess ship.

The large and modern 44,548grt Royal Princess. Photo: Tony Rive of St Peter Port, Guernsey.

Bridge Team Management

With regard to navigation the embryonic, home grown Bridge Team Management system in Grand Princess has now been fully developed into a company Bridge Team Command and Control system known as BTCC. Princess ships are now fully equipped with Integrated Bridge System (IBS) and ECDIS using ENCs and no paper charts except, in a few areas where there is no reliable ENC such as the waters of Greenland/Alaska/Mexico/Honduras. Traditional navigation is not entirely dead.

The need for a high level of training in systems

1992 Royal Princess’s bridge - partly integrated.

So how does a modern bridge run? My first experience of Bridge Team Management (BTM) in a Princess ship was as the newly appointed Third Officer after my time with RFA. On our first departure, Martinique, I was told to put a position on the chart and look useful, reporting as my RFA training had dictated, “Command this is chart – last fix a good fix, 100 yards Right of Track, suggest steer 248 Gyro to regain track in 6 minutes.” Came the reply from a very senior P&O Captain, “Is he complaining?” This Captain, another Commodore of the line, was a superb seaman and was of the type that knew you had made a mistake just as you were starting to think you might have. Introduction of the navigation simulator

Carnival Corporation has built a state-of-the-art simulator in Amsterdam to train, practice and fine tune Princess’s approach to BTM and BTCC. Essentially this takes away the rank structure on a

Our young officers are now trained in a Monitoring Role, with ECDIS Track Pilots navigating the ship and on the latest equipment even altering course without the OOW’s acknowledgement. They must be more highly trained in systems and correct setting of equipment than in any other time in our history. Possibly, some will criticise their dependence on navigational instruments but our young officers require a different set of skills to navigate bigger ships in an increasingly technical, but litigious and environmentally compromised, maritime world. Happily, the highly recognisable P&O house flag is still flying in P&O Cruises’ vessels and remains on a Princess Officer’s cap badge and is our link to the history and traditions of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company. Currently Carnival Corporation owns nine cruise brands and on 27th April 2011 took delivery of its hundredth cruise ship Carnival Magic (130,000grt). Princess Cruises has two new 3,600 passenger crew ships on order, each of 141,000grt, and the first is scheduled to enter service in May 2013 as the latest Royal Princess. Both of this pair will have fully BTCCdesigned bridges. It has been a long road from Beaufort House to Master of Crown Princess but a very rewarding and fulfilling one. In the short space of 30 years we have moved from visual navigation supported by instruments to instrument-based navigation backed up by visual clues. Today’s navigators are just as professional, but with a different set of skills. To sum up, I quote Grand Princess’s motto in futuro fides. 71

BY

Captain Peter Mole, HARBOUR MASTER, WEYMOUTH, YOUNGER BROTHER.

waters of Weymouth Bay and the two harbours to carry on, as far as possible, as if nothing out of the ordinary was taking place. Portland Harbour covers a wide area and, as a busy diverse port, is a base for cableships, hosts a very successful bunkering operation for ships of all sizes and offers repair, maintenance and other facilities to commercial shipping and military vessels. Portland is privately owned following the departure of the Royal Navy some years ago. Weymouth Harbour is a terminal for a fast ferry service to the Channel Islands, offers berths for almost 1000 leisure vessels, is home to a substantial commercial and leisure fishing fleet, and also hosts diving and sightseeing vessels. It also attracts many visiting yachts and motor cruisers each summer. The harbour is municipally owned with an energetic Harbour Board consisting of five local councillors and two independent members who set policy and direction with the council officer team. Two very different ports, but with different sources of income the conflict of competition does not get in the way.

Bryony Shaw - Skandia Sail for Gold Regatta.

Dedicated port management

Ben Ainslie - Weymouth & Portland International Regatta 2011.

Luke Patience and Stuart Bithell Skandia Sail for Gold Regatta 2010.

Olympic Preparations W

ill the viewing billions from all over the world see the sailing events of the fast approaching Olympic and Paralympic Games as a great success? Will exciting racing take place without unwelcome distractions? Will the waters off the beautiful Jurassic Coast provide ideal conditions for London 2012?

Whatever your loyalties the answer to these questions will hopefully be a resounding “yes!” as most observers remain oblivious to the work that has contributed to support two, hopefully memorable, series of races taking place off the Dorset coast. A huge undertaking

All over the UK, in many walks of life, countless unseen people will have been increasingly finding sleepless nights more common. When “1000 days to go” was celebrated in 2009 it probably felt as though there was plenty of time to get ready. However, the magnitude of the undertaking gradually dawned. To stage part of “the greatest show on earth” while maintaining business as usual is an interesting mix. 72

For Weymouth Harbour Authority and Portland Harbour Authority the task was to work together with the London 2012 organisers to establish the legislative framework and operational procedures to support the safe and successful sailing events. What was not so well defined was what constituted “business as usual”? From the spring of 2010 the two harbour authorities set about shaping the legal and operating structures and processes needed with close assistance from LOCOG (The London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games) and Dorset Police. Months of consultation with many harbour and water users preceded the construction and submission of two draft Harbour Revision Orders. Philosophically the aim was to enable users of the

Both ports are managed on a day to day basis by people who tend to have a Merchant Navy or Royal Navy background and others who have found the lure of harbour business operations attractive. Fortunately both harbours have active consultative groups with a strong sense of identity and a real interest in the effective running of their harbours. Harbour users have been encouraged to have their say at formal meeting, drop in sessions and general day to day dialogue playing a significant part in the lead up to the submission for approval of the Harbour Revision Orders. The plans that were jointly developed for the sailing events are based on the five courses in Weymouth Bay and Portland Harbour which will hopefully enable racing to take place in ideal racing conditions and in a way which enables the racing to be visible through television coverage or by spectators on the shore with the beautiful backdrop of the Jurassic Coast. Meanwhile shipping and boats whether commercial or not will be given as much opportunity as practical to access water areas not actually part of the “field of play”. To reach consensus has involved much dialogue with bodies such as the emergency services including the armed forces, local and central regulatory authorities and, most of all, local water interests such as fishing groups and yacht clubs. Previous Olympic Games have only provided limited clues and guidance in developing plans for 2012. From high level risks through to smaller details such as

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Saskia Clark and Hannah Mills Skandia Sail for Gold Regatta 2011.

speed limits, radio frequencies, traffic flows and so forth. Debate has been energetic. Throughout there has been a real determination to try and find a balance in solving the problems which have arisen or could be foreseen with a notable readiness by most parties to compromise or accept changes to accommodate the greater goal. A diverse group of really professional people have come together and given their best efforts to make the Games a success and the Harbour Revision Orders were brought into force without any formal objections in August 2011. Huge investment

Work to date includes a vast array of activities which will not only contribute towards the events themselves but also leave a lasting beneficial legacy for the local area. Almost £100 million has been invested in a new road into Weymouth where 18 months of road works will result in more efficient flows of traffic becoming of such a prestigious occasion. The National Sailing Academy at Portland has been extended while an athletes’ village has been built for the sailors which will become a school and much needed housing after the Games. Around the Weymouth seafront, and within the harbour, infrastructure projects have been hurriedly commenced to improve such items as improved road access to the ferry terminal, increased and enhanced berthing for visiting boats, modernisation of showers and toilets, overhauling the town bridge and many others.

All being well a celebratory atmosphere will prevail as in the order of 50,000 additional visitors a day arrive by road and rail, whether as ticket holders for the official viewing areas, or to join the large screen viewing areas on the beach and various other festival and cultural activities which are taking place. For visitors arriving by boat additional berths have been established alongside, at anchor or on moorings. While these berths need to be booked in advance it is hoped that the security precautions will be unobtrusive and largely unseen with the reassuring presence of HMS Bulwark lying to seaward of the race areas.

From left to right: Dennis George, Deputy Harbour Master Weymouth; the author; Alan Baker, Deputy Harbour Master Portland and Captain Mike Shipley, Harbour Master Portland.

An excellent legacy

Hopefully, come the summer of 2012 the efforts of so many people in enabling the Games to take place will be happily forgotten as the spotlight falls on athletes from around the world pursuing a small number of elusive gold, silver and bronze medals. After the Games unique memories will be accompanied by a legacy of improved facilities in Weymouth and Portland and many more people wishing to visit some of the world’s best sailing waters. 73

Above: Sea Cadets in TS Royalist.

Above: Jonas Hanway, founder of the Society in 1756.

2

Confidence and commitment seem to be the watch words here, everyone I meet who has been touched by the Charity is brimming with both.” A consequence of this is that the Charity is keen to be more open about its role and successes, rather than hide its light under the traditional bushel. Nigel Palmer has been involved with the MSSC for several years and, in his new role as chairman, emphasises, “We are a strong and vibrant charity, with a unique and important role which straddles the entire maritime community. We need to speak to that community and be relevant to them, because it is only by close co-operation that we can understand their needs and support them.” Partnerships are the fuel that keeps this Charity afloat with the biggest supporter being the Royal Navy to the tune of £8.5 million a year, with this being at least matched by the MSSC through its own fundraising efforts, and these relationships are key to its success. “Without the help of big name funders like Trinity House, the Dulverton Trust, Jack Petchey Foundation or the Gosling Foundation, we would struggle to do all that we do,” commented Palmer. “It was their belief in us that saw us deliver a new offshore power training vessel and pioneer the new rowing boat, Trinity 500, both of which saw national launches in 2010. “In real terms that has meant we have been able to increase the number of young people who get the chance to go to sea, or learn rowing skills, the first step to inspiring confidence and a passion for all things nautical.”

011 was an exceptionally busy year for the Marine Society & Sea Cadets (MSSC). Over the last twelve months the charity, supporting both professional seafarers with development opportunities and young people as cadets, has taken 6,365 calls from seafarers, made £166,000 available to them via loans, awarded £800,000 for Rating to Officer training under the JW Slater Fund, completed 5,793 training days for young people, awarded 4,000 RYA qualifications and introduced over 1,000 cadets to their first week at sea.

The Marine Society & Sea Cadets Development over 250 years

This ever growing zeal to do more has been boosted further with the arrival of a new chief executive, Martin Coles, and a new chairman, Captain Nigel Palmer, Elder Brother, which has seen the Charity introduce a raft of new developments to increase both its profile among the maritime community and what it can offer to those working in the sector as well as those contemplating joining. The Charity has been a building block for development for over 250 years, admittedly not always in the same guise. From the start it has understood the value of adapting to its environment and the needs of those it serves. From humble beginnings in 1756, when the Marine Society first campaigned for and then delivered a unique standard of care and consideration for Britain’s potential young seafarers, through to understanding that access to education and learning for them was a fundamental right. Running in tandem the Sea Cadet movement offered similar support to young people, introducing 74

them to a nautical culture that would benefit them as they journeyed through life, the ethos of which – team work, discipline, communication and trust – has not changed in 150 years. MS and SCC, pooling of resources

It is not surprising then that, by pooling resources through a merger in 2004, this combined expertise has meant increased commitment and resources in delivering positive change and opportunity for its beneficiaries; in the last year 30,000 people have felt the impact of the charity on their lives. Martin Coles, although only in post for a year, has encouraged the Charity to take a hard look at its potential and laid down plans to ensure that its future vision and strategy keeps pushing it to achieve even more. He commented, “In my short time with the MSSC I have been both amazed and impressed by the breadth of the work, from the wide ranging support offered to seafarers as well as the life changing opportunities for young people.

Training Afloat

Some 300 new Trinity 500 boats have been launched across the UK and TS Jack Petchey, now in her second season, is becoming a familiar sight in

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

From top left, clockwise: • Sea Cadets under training. • From 1932, the Hot Cross Bun distribution at Easter to Marine Society Cadets. Middle picture: TS Royalist. • John McLoughlin, HSE consultant who successfully studied by way of The Marine Society. • Prize winners with the Shipping Minister after the 2011 Court. • Sea Cadets in TS Royalist. • Sea Cadets in TS Royalist. • Sea Cadets on parade in Trafalgar Square.

ports around the country; her role as an ambassador for Sea Cadets growing stronger with each berthing she makes. And it cannot be underestimated the sheer impact a trip in TS Petchey or Royalist, the flagship 24 metre brig, can have on a cadet; the feedback is both humbling and inspiring, with many citing it as a once in a lifetime experience and a real confidence booster. So too with the educational side of house; professional seafarers learning through the Marine Society, or helped to do so by the Charity financially, consistently praise its measured advice and unwavering support to get them through their chosen educational route. This can be anything from re-acquainting themselves with maths via the online

[email protected] programme, preparing for A levels, or completing OOW certification. John McLoughlin from Norfolk, who recently studied with the Charity is keen to sing their praises, “It is no exaggeration to say that, without the help of the Marine Society, I would never have been able to complete my OOW certification” It is the quality of the partnerships that enables the Marine Society to deliver such committed support. Working with the Open University, Middlesex University Work Based Learning and shipping employers themselves, means that the advice and support packs a powerful tailored punch. And with a pass rate above the national average it is getting more and more seafarers qualified and up through the ranks.

So to the future. As a country we are suffering one of the severest economic downtowns in modern history and this inevitably increases the challenges upon the Charity. “Yes it does,” says Coles, “and it is by no means an easy road we take. All charities are facing challenging times but we have no intention of slowing down, we are well into the fundraising campaign to replace the 40 year old TS Royalist and, given the success of [email protected], we will be delivering the next step, [email protected], in the near future. So our commitment in 2012 is to more opportunities not less, and for that we will be needing the support of all our friends.” For more information readers are invited to visit: www.ms-sc.org 75

BY Maldwin

Drummond, OBE JP DL HON DSc, YOUNGER BROTHER.

T

he Yacht Club as it was first known, was founded on 1st June 1815 at the Thatched House Tavern in London. The club was for gentlemen interested in salt water yachting and the 42 original members agreed to meet for dinner twice a year, in London and Cowes, to discuss their mutual interest. Most were regular visitors to the Royal Yacht Club in 1820 after the accession of George IV, who had joined in 1817, and it was created The Royal Yacht Squadron by William IV in 1833.

Above: Arrow, Joseph Weld’s legendary racing yacht.

The Royal Yacht Squadron & the sport of yachting

Above: Falcon owned by Lord Yarborough first Commodore of the Royal Yacht Club with Pearl to starboard belonging to the Earl of Uxbridge, bound for Cherbourg in 1831.

The new club rapidly proved a focal point for yachtsmen already sailing in the Solent and elsewhere and members cruised in company to regattas along the coast and even across the Channel led by the first Commodore The Earl of Yarborough. He was also a prodigious host giving magnificent parties aboard his yacht Falcon and ashore– the social side of the regatta

has been an important feature since its earliest days. It may seem strange to link the Battle of Waterloo with the expansion of the sport and pastime of yachting, but there are two good reasons to speak of both in one breath. The first, of course, is the defeat of Napoleon and the ability to sail the Channel and further abroad without fear of French interference. Cruising yachts continued to mount cannon in both fashion and as a precaution against the occasional French privateer. It was not only guns that provided the naval atmosphere aboard some larger yachts. Lord Yarborough required his crew to sign the clauses of the Naval Discipline Act aboard Falcon. With the thinning of the Navy, there was ample opportunity for recruitment. Sir William Curtis, whose company had manufactured the ships’ biscuit, was absent at the founding meeting of The Yacht Club, on 1st June, 1815. He was en route for St. Petersburg in his yacht Rebecca Maria, a cutter of 76 tons. A more celebrated absentee was the Earl of Uxbridge, later the 1st Marquess of Anglesey. He could not attend the meeting at the Thatched House in St. James’s Street, because he was with his division of cavalry in Belgium and later at Wellington’s side at the Battle of Waterloo, where he lost his leg. This was later

remembered in the celebrated staccato exchange between them while astride their horses. Uxbridge looked down and exclaimed, “By God, I’ve lost my leg.” The Duke, glancing in the same direction, momentarily taking his telescope from his eye, said “By God, so you have.” Lord Uxbridge in his cutter Pearl, 113 tons, was one of those who propelled the sport of yachting firmly into the social scene, which provides the second Waterloo connection. The royal connection clearly aided this. Members took part in a regatta, 30 of them sailing in procession around The Brambles, obeying orders from the Commodore using the club’s signal books. Yacht racing was undertaken in local boats, sponsored by members and others in the little port of Cowes. It was much the same as professional horse racing today, where the owner, because of his build and lack of horse racing skills relies on jockeys. It was some time before owners put their hands to the tiller or wheel, which led Lord Cardigan to remark, when offered the helm of his own yacht, “Thank you, I never take anything between meals.” There were, however, sailing matches between yachts and one of the first was between Joseph Weld in his 60 ton cutter Below: A group of the 22 starting cannons, on the esplanade below the Royal Yacht Squadron Headquarters, Cowes Castle, Isle of Wight.

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Charlotte and Thomas Assheton Smith in his 65 ton cutter Elizabeth. The Hampshire Telegraph commented that the contest would “afford as much sport as any race that was ever contested by the highest metaled coursers at Newmarket.” It was said that as much as 2,000 guineas was being bet on the outcome by the large crowd that gathered to watch the two yachts. It was a three race contest. The first was from Cowes, round a moored vessel off Swanage and return. The next day the course was to be from Cowes, round the light vessel at Bembridge and return. If a decider for the wager of £500 was needed, the second course was to be repeated on the third day. However, Elizabeth was dismasted off St. Alban’s Head during the first race and the owner declined to race again. Initially, yachts were converted work boats. Rebecca Maria, for example, was a converted Arab dhow. Lord Anglesey, as Uxbridge was by 1820, went only a step east to a well known builder of smugglers’ vessels for his cutter Pearl. Joseph Weld designed his own yachts and had them built below his house at Above: The three masted topsail auxiliary schooner Sunbeam, in which Lord Brassey circumnavigated the world in 1874 and Lady Pylewell Hard. When he conceived his famous Arrow Brassey turned the voyage into a best seller. he had her finished by Inman’s located on the site of the present Berthon Boat Company in Lymington. The squadron was beginning to see opportunities from his round the world epic in Lively Lady in 1968. Being the master of a large cruising boat was a for international competition. We have to cross the Sir Alec was quickly followed by that great mariner, professional responsibility. Pearl was taken out to the Atlantic to see the beginning of moves that was to Sir Robin Knox-Johnston, the first person to sail Bay of Naples for Lord Anglesey’s pleasure, but for lead to international yacht racing. The lead up to the single-handed around the world, which he achieved more purpose he sailed his yacht to St. Petersburg to America’s Cup started in 1849 when Captain Richard in Suhaili, 1968-69. Pursuit of speed under sail meant faster fin keeled have conversations with the Russian military. Sailing “Dick” Brown, a noted New York pilot, commissioned for public purpose became the objective when James George Steers to design and build Mary Taylor, named yachts, taller masts and greater sail area. Following Brooke sailed his 142 ton schooner Royalist to the after a well known “canary”, a favourite singer on the the necessary balancing act of dinghy sailors, the Far East. He ended up in Sarawak and helped quell New York stage. The hundred guinea cup presented by crews of ocean racers lined the weather, and in light a rebellion against the Sultan of Borneo. This so the Squadron became known as The America’s Cup. airs the lee rail, like a flock of seagulls. This reduced impressed the Governor of Sarawak that Brooke This competition that became the gold standard the appeal of ocean racing to the amateur and became the Governor in his place. Lord Dufferin, in of world yacht racing had a great influence on yacht gradually the professional sailor came into being. his 85 ton schooner Foam, reached far into the Arctic, design, sail making and materials during the next The “Big Bang” in the City of London also had an cruising Iceland and Spitzbergen. Sir Alan Young, who century. The “Auld Mug”, as Lipton called it, has affect. Where previously owners and crew would commanded a transport taking troops to the Black carried the pinnacle of yacht racing through many take the odd day off – Friday, Monday and possibly Sea during the Crimea, bought the naval five-gun ups and downs through to 2009 and beyond. Tuesday – to complete an ocean race, firms began to sloop Pandora and had her fitted for the Arctic. He Competing yachts have passed from the “J” Class to take a dim view of salty absences. At the same time, was determined to discover what had happened to the 12 metre on to the America’s Cup boats with one families liked to have their sailors at home for the weekend or to take part in some of the salt-water the Franklin expedition of 1845 but did not succeed. or two funnies in between. Lord Brassey confounded all when he circumnavigated Ocean racing tried not only crew, but standing and activities themselves. Round the buoy racing the globe in 1874 in the three masted topsail running rigging, sail materials, mast and fittings. After became more popular. The classic ocean races continued, becoming more auxiliary schooner Sunbeam. The voyage was made the Second World War, the development of artificial famous by his wife Ann who wrote the book A Voyage fibres, both for sails and ropes replacing canvas and and more professional, especially after the Fastnet in the Sunbeam about their experiences during the hemp, and the coming of aluminium masts and spars Race of 1979, where a number of yachts and yachtscruise. The book became a best seller. did more to increase the seaworthiness and speed of men were lost. As a result of this, in 1985 new rules encouraged designs with a greater range of stability. These adventures did not blunt the search for speed vessels under sail than any other advance. under sail. Waterwitch, launched in 1826, owned by These developments were employed by members, Even so, lessons have still not been fully digested, the Earl of Belfast challenged the Navy and eventually the single-handed ocean girdlers like Sir Francis preferring to blame that incident on the unique was bought into the service. Such challenges by a small Chichester, 1966/67, in Gipsy Moth IV. Sir Francis had weather conditions, where the wind suddenly went band of private individuals gained appreciation for the turned away from ocean racing to organizing the first from south-west to north-west at the height of the Royal Yacht Squadron and the club was labelled by single-handed trans-Atlantic race in 1960. Sir Alec storm, producing a particularly dangerous sea. The William IV in 1833 as of “national utility.” Rose quickly followed in Chichester’s wake, returning search for speed under sail goes on unabated. 77

BY

Richard Doughty

DIRECTOR, THE CUTTY SARK TRUST

C

aptain Moodie, the ship’s first captain, claimed she would “last for ever.” So far he seems to have been proved right. Built for a working life of just 30 years, it is simply amazing she is still with us 143 years later. She has lost masts, had her rudder ripped off twice, suffered the corrosive effects of sea salt and most recently survived a fire which stretched from stem to stern and reached temperatures in excess of 1000°C.

Cutty Sark–the great survivor Now, with the support from the Corporation of Trinity House, Cutty Sark is retaking her place in the Royal Borough of Greenwich as one of the nation’s greatest maritime treasures having completed a gruelling five year conservation programme. Originally built for the China tea trade, Cutty Sark carried over 1.3 million lbs. of tea (enough to make more than 200 million cups) on each of her voyages back from China. However, her career as a tea clipper was actually remarkably brief, just eight years. Under a particularly brilliant master, Richard Woodget, she had another spectacularly successful career transporting bales of wool from Australia and made a number of record passages which everybody remembers her for. From late April 2012 Cutty Sark begins a new chapter in her extraordinary career. She has been lifted quite literally into the 21st century. Visitors will be able to venture both underneath and aboard the three-masted sailing ship which has been raised over three metres above her dry berth, showcasing the elegant lines of her hull which enabled her to glide through the water. Cutty Sark was designed to withstand the hydrostatic forces on the hull by the sea and the loads of

her cargo. She was not designed to be sitting in a dry dock for long periods of time. Being supported by props and shores for over fifty years has resulted in sagging and bellying of the lower keel. Cutty Sark’s iron framework was far too fragile to support both itself and the weight of her planks. The project engineers have therefore designed a new steel intervention. This will transfer the load down through twelve pairs of struts and ties into the ground which means the original fabric does not have to work so hard and creates a completely new and unique experience. The £50 million conservation project has not been simply about treating rust, consolidating decaying timbers and providing adequate physical support. A key element of the redisplay is to give Maurice Lambert’s Star of India far greater prominence, making the merchant memorial role of the ship much more obvious. Inspired by the tomb of the Unknown Warrior in Westminster Abbey, the monument has been repositioned under the keel. In the Sammy Ofer Gallery visitors will also be able to see the Trust’s collection of 83 figureheads assembled by Sidney Cumbers and dedicated to the

Top: A wealth of gingerbread. Middle image: Bow panorama during conservation. Above: Stepping the foremast. Far left: Gilding the gingerbread. Left: The ship’s canopy, photographed through the glass canopy from inside the main reception. .

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Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

Little Ships of Dunkirk. These will form a choir and will act as sentinels to the Star of India and its associated commemorative plaques. Cutty Sark has to survive not just as a tourist attraction, but as an icon of London, as a venue, literally as a flagship for enterprise, entrepreneurial activity, and quality. These are the qualities the ship and our new interpretation scheme seeks to espouse them. She is, after all, a business machine and we need to ensure she can survive in the highly competitive market of 21st century visitor attractions. If there was anything positive that came out of the fire in May 2007, it was that Cutty Sark was not just a local or national story, she was an international story. The four corners of the earth were shocked by what they saw and heard on worldwide broadcasts. This begs the question why should a merchant ship be so highly regarded? Cutty Sark is not just remembered because she carried tea back from China faster than any other ship, nor because she was the most successful wool clipper in the world, it is not even because she is one of just three composite built ships left in the world. Cutty Sark is a tangible reminder of another world, a way of life just beyond grasp of human memory; of a technology which has served us well for thousands of years and to this day offers great sport; that even today, out of sight out of mind, ships are as vital as ever for transporting goods around the globe, a simple, yet iconic, reminder of the importance of the sea in all our lives. A reminder that as an island nation, sea trade, not military might alone, is what made us the prosperous nation we are today. There are relatively few surviving ships which were so directly involved with the growth of trade, industry, employment and prosperity in this country and which helped to strengthen our international links. It is more than 70 years since the end of commercial sail and yet we are still enthralled by the image of the sailing ship, a mass of white canvas ploughing over the seas at 17 knots. At the beginning of the 21st century we are still enthralled by the excitement, the danger of the sailing ship and so we are enthralled by this unique survivor of a bygone but never forgotten age, a symbol of adventure, of bravery, of pitting oneself against the elements, of the romance of sail. Above all Cutty Sark is special because she is truly emblematic, intrinsically inspiring and quite simply the most beautiful of all sailing ships. Top left: Cutty Sark is now covered at waterline level with a glass canopy to give weather protection to the newly-conserved hull. Top right: Stern panorama. Middle right: Preparing one of the masts for stepping.. Lower image: The whole of the lower hull of the ship has been sheathed in copper. When afloat such sheathing allowed her to move with greater speed through the water and also made it easier to maintain her. 79

Trinity House Fraternity Review 2012

The Charity Annual Review 2010-2011 The Charities’ Annual Report and Accounts for the year ended 31st March 2011 were approved by the Board in October. The following is an extract from the Annual Report, copies of which may be obtained from the Secretary. Objectives

Principal aims of the Corporation are to serve the mariner with support to those in need, to provide education and training in seamanship and to promote safe navigation. The Corporate Charity is responsible for the licensing of Deep Sea Pilots, the provision of expertise on maritime matters and the appointment of Nautical Assessors to assist the Admiralty Court. Under its Royal Charters the Corporation is also responsible for the upkeep of Trinity House and the maintenance and good government of the Trinity House Fraternity. The Corporation’s subsidiary charity – the Trinity House Maritime Charity – is governed by a scheme of the Charity Commission. The charity’s primary objects are directed at the provision of accommodation and relief for residents of its almshouses and for its pensioners. The scheme also provides for a number of other charitable objects concerning education and training in navigation and seamanship; the advancement of public safety, in particular the safety of mariners and shipping generally; the relief of need amongst mariners and their dependants; and the education of the public in matters relating to navigation, shipping and seamanship. Regarding itself primarily as a grant-making charity rather than as a direct service provider the Corporation’s resources are channelled to those established charities which are best equipped to deliver services and have a record of achievement. In this way the Corporation’s resources are used to support and augment the work of such charities. Examples of charities to which grants are made are shown on pages 2 and 3 of this edition of The Trinity House Fraternity Review.

Welfare

Charitable objects of the Corporation relating to the welfare of mariners and their dependants are discharged principally through the Trinity House Maritime Charity. The charity operates 18 almshouses at Walmer, Kent and makes provision for regular payments to up to 60 annuitants. Other direct support is made through occasional one-off grants to former seafarers and their dependants. Youth Opportunities and Training

Provision of opportunities to enable young people to experience life at sea has a three-fold aim. Firstly, confidence at sea gained by handling small or large craft enhances public safety at sea. Secondly, it promotes the education and training of those who wish to pursue a career at sea. Finally, it increases awareness of navigation, shipping and seamanship and the role of Trinity House and other agencies in promoting the safety of shipping. In particular, the Corporation supports four major charities engaged in the provision of such activities: the Marine Society and Sea Cadets, Tall Ships Youth Trust, Jubilee Sailing Trust and the Scout Association. For those who seek to pursue careers in the sail training industry, the Corporation funds career development bursaries awarded by the Association of Sea Training Organisations (ASTO) to enable candidates to obtain formal qualifications. In addition, the Corporation provides regular grants in support of the Sea Cadets and the water based activities of the Scout Association. The Corporation is also in the final year of a three year trial scheme – the Professional Yachtsman Bursary Scheme – the purpose of which is to encourage the training of officers for the large yacht industry. This has been a largely unregulated area of the maritime industry and there is a need for professionally competent and safe officers to improve the standards at sea. Under this scheme, bursaries are provided to fund candidates undertaking recognised

courses at either the UK Sailing Academy (UKSA) or the University of Plymouth. Owing to the initial success of this scheme and the excellent coverage it has received in the maritime press, the Corporate Board has recently agreed to extend the trial for at least another year. Public Safety and Education

Safety of mariners and shipping generally, and of the public who travel by ship, is the core activity of Trinity House in its capacity as a General Lighthouse Authority. It is also a charitable activity of the Corporation’s charities which provide a number of major grants for this purpose. Maintaining the Fabric of Trinity House

Maintenance of the fabric and heritage of Trinity House is an essential part of the Corporation’s activities. This Grade I listed building was designed by Samuel Wyatt in 1792 but was extensively damaged during the Second World War. Following its reconstruction by Sir Albert Richardson the building was re-opened in 1953. Deep Sea Pilotage licensing and bursaries

Two important roles in connection with the regulation of navigation and shipping are maintained by the Corporation. As a Deep Sea Pilotage Authority the Corporation has responsibility for the licensing of candidates who successfully complete an oral examination. The licences of existing pilots are also subject to revalidation each year. The Corporation has also introduced a scheme to encourage more candidates to seek licences as Deep Sea Pilots who play an increasingly important role in the safety of shipping in the English Channel, North Sea and around our coasts. Costs involved in obtaining a licence can be considerable and under this scheme, bursaries are awarded to successful candidates to help them with the purchase of necessary equipment and to mitigate the costs involved in training.

Acknowledgements We acknowledge the assistance of the many individuals and organisations who have kindly provided images for this edition. Particular thanks are due to: page 5 page 7 page 8 page 16

Mark Dalton MoD; Luisa Uruena, Axis Travel Marketing Pagefield Imperial War Museum; Historic Ships in Baltimore page 17 Roger Barker; MAIB; MCA page 18 Mary Rose Trust page 19 National Maritime Museum page 21 HMS Trincomalee Trust; Port of London Authority page 24 Ambrose Greenway page 26/27 Ron Blakeley page 34 Northern Lighthouse Board

page 38 page 39 page 40 page 44/45 page 46/47 page 48/49 page 50/51 page 52 page 56/57 page 58/59 page 69 page 72/73

STENA; Danish Maritime Administration; Directorate of Coastal Safety Turkey Puertos del Estado, Spain UKHO; Roger Barker 'K'- Line; OOCL The Trinity House Collection The Trinity House Collection MAIB; MCA Ambrose Greenway MoD RFA GIBDOCK RYA

Outside front and back covers: Casquets Lighthouse, off Alderney, Channel Islands. Photograph by Ron Blakeley, Principal Civil Engineer, Engineering and Project Delivery Department. ©2012 Trinity House.

Contributions to The Fraternity Review: The Editor welcomes articles from members of the Fraternity on any aspect of maritime activities. All Brethren are invited, in the first instance, to prepare a synopsis for consideration. Articles up to 1250 words are sought with illustrations where possible. (To make the most of your images in print, they should be submitted as 300dpi jpeg files – the larger the image file the better – please do not embed any image within a Microsoft Word file). Your synopsis should be submitted to the Editor at Trinity House by 1st October and the final version of the approved article including images no later than 1st December each year.

80 Editor: Paul Ridgway Design: Michael Sturley Print: Lavenham Press Ltd. 1700PB/04/2012

Casquets Lighthouse

Published by the Corporation of Trinity House Tower Hill London EC3N 4DH Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7481 6900 Fax: +44 (0)20 7480 7662 www.trinityhouse.co.uk ISSN: 1461-9512

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